Autosomal-recessive syndrome with alopecia, hypogonadism, progressive extra-pyramidal disorder, white matter disease, sensory neural deafness, diabetes mellitus, and low IGF1
ABSTRACT We explored the manifestations of an autosomal-recessive multisystemic disorder in several Saudi families. Recognized causes of progressive extra-pyramidal disorder and white matter disease were excluded and the neurological, imaging, endocrine, and skin manifestations of this syndrome described. The onset of these symptoms in these patients began in early adolescence and progressed more rapidly in males. All affected patients had total or partial alopecia, clinical and chemical evidence of hypogonadism (low levels of estradiol and testosterone); females had clear evidence of hypogonadism (streak or absent ovaries), and some patients had diabetes mellitus and/or sensorineural deafness. The constant biochemical abnormality was the low IGF-1. The neurological manifestations included moderate to severe intellectual decline and abnormality of muscle tone and posture with choreo-athetoid and dystonic movements resulting in gait difficulty, dysarthria, difficulty swallowing, and scoliosis. The MRI of brain demonstrated white matter involving cerebellum, brain stem, and cerebral structures, as well as abnormal decreased signal intensity in the basal ganglia with involvement of the substantia nigra. We conclude that the association of hypogonadism, alopecia, and persistent low IGF-1 is a significant autosomal recessive syndrome; it is prevalent in Saudi Arabia. We also demonstrate that the progressive extra-pyramidal disorder, white matter disease, and abnormal signals of the basal ganglia are common features of this syndrome. Sensorineural deafness and diabetes mellitus were recognized features.
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ABSTRACT: Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) encompasses a group of inherited disorders that share the clinical features of an extrapyramidal movement disorder accompanied by varying degrees of intellectual disability and abnormal iron deposition in the basal ganglia. The genetic basis of ten forms of NBIA is now known. The clinical features of NBIA range from rapid global neurodevelopmental regression in infancy to mild parkinsonism with minimal cognitive impairment in adulthood, with wide variation seen between and within the specific NBIA sub-type. This review describes the clinical presentations, imaging findings, pathologic features, and treatment considerations for this heterogeneous group of disorders.01/2015; 8(1):1-13. DOI:10.14802/jmd.14034
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ABSTRACT: Numerous congenital-genetic inborn errors of metabolism (CIEMs) have been identified and characterized in detail within recent decades, with promising therapeutic options. Neuroimaging is becoming increasingly utilized in earlier stages of CIEMs, and even in asymptomatic relatives of patients with a CIEM, so as to monitor disease progress and treatment response. This review attempts to summarize in a concise fashion the neuroimaging findings of various CIEMs that may present in adulthood, as well as those that may persist into adulthood, whether because of beneficial therapy or a delay in diagnosis. Notably, some of these disorders have neuroimaging findings that differ from their classic infantile or earlychildhood forms, whereas others are identical to their early pediatric forms. The focus of this review is their appearance on routine magnetic resonance imaging sequences, with some basic attention to the findings of such CIEMs on specialized neuroimaging, based on recent or preliminary research. The general classes of disorders covered in this complex review are: peroxisomal disorders (adrenoleukodystrophy), lysosomal storage disorders (including metachromatic leukodystrophy, Krabbe or globoid cell leukodystrophy, Fabry, Niemann-Pick, GM1, GM2, Gaucher, mucopolysaccharidoses, and Salla diseases), mitochondrial disorders (including mitochondrial encephalomyopathy with lactic acidosis and strokelike episodes, myoclonic epilepsy with ragged red fibers, Leigh disease, and Kearns-Sayre syndrome), urea cycle disorders, several organic acidemias (including phenylketonuria, maple syrup urine disease, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl colyase deficiency, glutaric acidurias, methylmalonic academia, proprionic academia, 3-methylglucatonic aciduria, and 2-hydroxyglutaric acidurias), cytoskeletal or transporter molecule defects (including Alexander or fibrinoid leukodystrophy, proteolipid protein-1 defect or Pelizaeus Merzbacher, Wilson, and Huntington diseases), and several neurodegenerative disorders of brain iron accumulation. Additionally, an arbitrary "miscellaneous" category of 5 recognizable disorders that may present in or persist into adulthood is summarized, which include megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts (megancephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts or van der Knaap disease), polymerase-III gene defect ("4H syndrome"), childhood ataxia with central nervous system hypomyelination ("vanishing white matter disease"), striopallidodentate calcinosis ("Fahr disease"), and Cockayne syndrome.04/2014; 35(2):160-91. DOI:10.1053/j.sult.2013.10.008
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ABSTRACT: First described in 1983, Woodhouse-Sakati syndrome (WSS) is a rare autosomal recessive genetic disorder that leads to a spectrum of hypogonadal symptoms in adolescence. The responsible gene, DCAF17 located on chromosome 2q31.1, was discovered in 2008 and to date nine mutations have been reported in the literature. The aim of the study was to review WSS descriptively in the light of new case reports with focus on endocrine features. Phenotypic description of three patients (two females, one male) with WSS followed in the Endocrinology Department of the University Hospital of Nancy, France, and exhaustive review of the literature using the PUBMED database were performed. Of 72 patients from 29 families with documented WSS who were identified, 39 had undergone genetic testing. WSS was invariably associated with hypogonadism, decreased IGF1 and frontotemporal alopecia starting in childhood. In addition to this triad, some patients exhibited intellectual disabilities of varying severity (87 %), bilateral deafness (76 %), cervicofacial dystonia and limb pain (42 % of cases, rising to 89 % after 25 years) and diabetes (66 %, rising to 96 % after 25 years). The pathophysiology of WSS remains unclear.Journal of endocrinological investigation 01/2014; 37(1):1-7. DOI:10.1007/s40618-013-0001-5 · 1.55 Impact Factor