“Australia’s 1996 Gun Law Reforms: Faster Fall in Firearm Deaths, Firearm Suicides and a Decade without Mass Shootings.”

School of Public Health, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.
Injury Prevention (Impact Factor: 1.89). 01/2007; 12(6):365-72. DOI: 10.1136/ip.2006.013714
Source: PubMed


After a 1996 firearm massacre in Tasmania in which 35 people died, Australian governments united to remove semi-automatic and pump-action shotguns and rifles from civilian possession, as a key component of gun law reforms.
To determine whether Australia's 1996 major gun law reforms were associated with changes in rates of mass firearm homicides, total firearm deaths, firearm homicides and firearm suicides, and whether there were any apparent method substitution effects for total homicides and suicides.
Observational study using official statistics. Negative binomial regression analysis of changes in firearm death rates and comparison of trends in pre-post gun law reform firearm-related mass killings.
Australia, 1979-2003.
Changes in trends of total firearm death rates, mass fatal shooting incidents, rates of firearm homicide, suicide and unintentional firearm deaths, and of total homicides and suicides per 100,000 population.
In the 18 years before the gun law reforms, there were 13 mass shootings in Australia, and none in the 10.5 years afterwards. Declines in firearm-related deaths before the law reforms accelerated after the reforms for total firearm deaths (p = 0.04), firearm suicides (p = 0.007) and firearm homicides (p = 0.15), but not for the smallest category of unintentional firearm deaths, which increased. No evidence of substitution effect for suicides or homicides was observed. The rates per 100,000 of total firearm deaths, firearm homicides and firearm suicides all at least doubled their existing rates of decline after the revised gun laws.
Australia's 1996 gun law reforms were followed by more than a decade free of fatal mass shootings, and accelerated declines in firearm deaths, particularly suicides. Total homicide rates followed the same pattern. Removing large numbers of rapid-firing firearms from civilians may be an effective way of reducing mass shootings, firearm homicides and firearm suicides.

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Available from: Kingsley Agho, Jan 02, 2014
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    • "From these analyses, it was concluded there was little evidence that firearm reforms (including the gun buyback) produced any significant effect on firearm homicide or firearm suicide. Conversely, analyses from Chapman et al. (2006), Leigh and Neill (2010, 2007), Mouzos (1999), Ozanne-Smith et al. (2004) and Warner (1999) described declines in firearm deaths, particularly firearm suicide. These studies examined the effect on rates of firearm homicide and suicide before and after the implementation of the NFA reforms per se or the firearm buy-back that accompanied these reforms. "
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    ABSTRACT: This paper compares the incidence and main characteristics of mass shooting events in Australia and the US in the period 1981 to 2013.
    08/2015; 1(3):1-12. DOI:10.1108/JCRPP-05-2015-0013
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    • "This study is one of the first studies that looks solely at the effects of assault weapons bans on public mass shootings. Most prior studies examined the effects of other types of gun control measures on mass shootings (Lott and Landes, 2000; Duwe et al., 2002; Chapman et al., 2006) or the effects of assault weapons bans on much broader categories of crime (Koper, 2004; Gius, 2014). "
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of the present study is to determine the effects of federal and state assault weapons bans on public mass shootings. Using a Poisson effect model and data for the period 1982 to 2011, it was found that both state and federal assault weapons bans have statistically significant and negative effects on mass shooting fatalities but that only the federal assault weapons ban had a negative effect on mass shooting injuries. This study is one of the first studies that looks solely at the effects of assault weapons bans on public mass shootings.
    Applied Economics Letters 08/2014; 22(4):281-284. DOI:10.1080/13504851.2014.939367 · 0.23 Impact Factor
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    • "The effect on firearm homicides followed a similar correlation. Also, Chapman et al. (2006) pointed out 18 years before the gun law reforms that there were 13 mass shootings but that none occurred in the next 10.5 years following the enactment of the 1996 gun control law. However, this last result is challenged by McPhedran and Baker (2011), who argues that factors other than the gun control laws must be taken into account to explain a drop in mass shooting since there was also a drop that occurred during the same period in New Zealand where no drastic gun control law was enacted. "
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