The beta-tail domain (beta TD) regulates physiologic ligand binding to integrin CD11b/CD18

Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
Blood (Impact Factor: 10.43). 05/2007; 109(8):3513-20. DOI: 10.1182/blood-2005-11-056689
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Crystallographic and electron microscopy studies revealed genuflexed (bent) integrins in both unliganded (inactive) and physiologic ligandbound (active) states, suggesting that local conformational changes are sufficient for activation. Herein we have explored the role of local changes in the contact region between the membrane-proximal beta-tail domain (betaTD) and the ligand-binding betaA domain of the bent conformation in regulating interaction of integrin CD11b/CD18 (alphaMbeta2) with its physiologic ligand iC3b. We replaced the betaTD CD loop residues D658GMD of the CD18 (beta2) subunit with the equivalent D672SSG of the beta3 subunit, with AGAA or with NGTD, expressed the respective heterodimeric receptors either transiently in epithelial HEK293T cells or stably in leukocytes (K562), and measured their ability to bind iC3b and to conformation-sensitive mAbs. In the presence of the physiologic divalent cations Ca(2+) plus Mg(2+) (at 1 mM each), the modified integrins showed increased (in HEK293) or constitutive (in K562) binding to iC3b compared with wild-type receptors. K562 expressing the betaTD-modified integrins bound in Ca(2+)Mg(2+) to the betaA-directed high-affinity reporter mAb 24 but not to mAb KIM127, a reporter of the genu-straightened state. These data identify a role for the membrane proximal betaTD as an allosteric modulator of integrin activation.

Download full-text


Available from: Annette Gylling (Lindroos), Jul 06, 2015
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Carefully soaking crystals with Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptides, we captured eight distinct RGD-bound conformations of the αIIbβ3 integrin headpiece. Starting from the closed βI domain conformation, we saw six intermediate βI conformations and finally the fully open βI with the hybrid domain swung out in the crystal lattice. The β1-α1 backbone that hydrogen bonds to the Asp side chain of RGD was the first element to move followed by adjacent to metal ion-dependent adhesion site Ca(2+), α1 helix, α1' helix, β6-α7 loop, α7 helix, and hybrid domain. We define in atomic detail how conformational change was transmitted over long distances in integrins, 40 Å from the ligand binding site to the opposite end of the βI domain and 80 Å to the far end of the hybrid domain. During these movements, RGD slid in its binding groove toward αIIb, and its Arg side chain became ordered. RGD concentration requirements in soaking suggested a >200-fold higher affinity after opening. The thermodynamic cycle shows how higher affinity pays the energetic cost of opening.
    The Journal of Cell Biology 06/2013; 201(7):1053-1068. DOI:10.1083/jcb.201212037 · 9.69 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: CD11b/CD18 is a key adhesion receptor that mediates leukocyte adhesion, migration and immune functions. We recently identified novel compounds, leukadherins, that allosterically enhance CD11b/CD18-dependent cell adhesion and reduce inflammation in vivo, suggesting integrin activation to be a novel mechanism of action for the development of anti-inflammatory therapeutics. Since a number of well-characterized anti-CD11b/CD18 activating antibodies are currently available, we wondered if such biological agonists could also become therapeutic leads following this mechanism of action. METHODS: We compared the two types of agonists using in vitro cell adhesion and wound-healing assays and using animal model systems. We also studied effects of the two types of agonists on outside-in signaling in treated cells. RESULTS: Both types of agonists similarly enhanced integrin-mediated cell adhesion and decreased cell migration. However, unlike leukadherins, the activating antibodies produced significant CD11b/CD18 macro clustering and induced phosphorylation of key proteins involved in outside-in signaling. Studies using conformation reporter antibodies showed that leukadherins did not induce global conformational changes in CD11b/CD18 explaining the reason behind their lack of ligand-mimetic outside-in signaling. In vivo, leukadherins reduced vascular injury in a dose-dependent fashion, but, surprisingly, the anti-CD11b activating antibody ED7 was ineffective. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that small molecule allosteric agonists of CD11b/CD18 have clear advantages over the biologic activating antibodies and provide a mechanistic basis for the difference. General Significance CD11b/CD18 activation represents a novel strategy for reducing inflammatory injury. Our study establishes small molecule leukadherins as preferred agonists over activating antibodies for future development as novel anti-inflammatory therapeutics.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 02/2013; 1830(6). DOI:10.1016/j.bbagen.2013.02.018 · 4.66 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We report the structure of an integrin with an alphaI domain, alpha(X)beta(2), the complement receptor type 4. It was earlier expected that a fixed orientation between the alphaI domain and the beta-propeller domain in which it is inserted would be required for allosteric signal transmission. However, the alphaI domain is highly flexible, enabling two betaI domain conformational states to couple to three alphaI domain states, and greater accessibility for ligand recognition. Although alpha(X)beta(2) is bent similarly to integrins that lack alphaI domains, the terminal domains of the alpha- and beta-legs, calf-2 and beta-tail, are oriented differently than in alphaI-less integrins. Linkers extending to the transmembrane domains are unstructured. Previous mutations in the beta(2)-tail domain support the importance of extension, rather than a deadbolt, in integrin activation. The locations of further activating mutations and antibody epitopes show the critical role of extension, and conversion from the closed to the open headpiece conformation, in integrin activation. Differences among 10 molecules in crystal lattices provide unprecedented information on interdomain flexibility important for modelling integrin extension and activation.
    The EMBO Journal 02/2010; 29(3):666-79. DOI:10.1038/emboj.2009.367 · 10.75 Impact Factor