Fatty acyl benzamido antibacterials based on inhibition of DnaK-catalyzed protein folding.
ABSTRACT We have reported that the hsp70 chaperone DnaK from Escherichia coli might assist protein folding by catalyzing the cis/trans isomerization of secondary amide peptide bonds in unfolded or partially folded proteins. In this study a series of fatty acylated benzamido inhibitors of the cis/trans isomerase activity of DnaK was developed and tested for antibacterial effects in E. coli MC4100 cells. N(alpha)-[Tetradecanoyl-(4-aminomethylbenzoyl)]-l-asparagine is the most effective antibacterial with a minimal inhibitory concentration of 100 +/- 20 microg/ml. The compounds were shown to compete with fluorophore-labeled sigma(32)-derived peptide for the peptide binding site of DnaK and to increase the fraction of aggregated proteins in heat-shocked bacteria. Despite its inability to serve as a folding helper in vivo a DnaK-inhibitor complex was still able to sequester an unfolded protein in vitro. Structure activity relationships revealed a distinct dependence of DnaK-assisted refolding of luciferase on the fatty acyl chain length, whereas the minimal inhibitory concentration was most sensitive to the structural nature of the benzamido core. We conclude that the isomerase activity of DnaK is a major survival factor in the heat shock response of bacteria and that small molecule inhibitors can lead to functional inactivation of DnaK and thus will display antibacterial activity.
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ABSTRACT: The discovery of novel small-molecule antibacterial drugs has been stalled for many years. The purpose of this review is to underscore and illustrate those scientific problems unique to the discovery and optimization of novel antibacterial agents that have adversely affected the output of the effort. The major challenges fall into two areas: (i) proper target selection, particularly the necessity of pursuing molecular targets that are not prone to rapid resistance development, and (ii) improvement of chemical libraries to overcome limitations of diversity, especially that which is necessary to overcome barriers to bacterial entry and proclivity to be effluxed, especially in Gram-negative organisms. Failure to address these problems has led to a great deal of misdirected effort.Clinical microbiology reviews 01/2011; 24(1):71-109. · 14.69 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Bac7, a cathelicidin peptide of the proline-rich group, inactivates bacteria in a stereospecific manner by entering target cells without any apparent membrane damage and by binding to as yet unknown intracellular targets. The present study was aimed at detecting these putative intracellular interactors, which might mediate the antibacterial action of this peptide. By using affinity resins functionalized with the N-terminal 1-35 fragment of Bac7, a single protein was specifically retained with high affinity from Escherichia coli cytoplasmic protein lysates. This ligand was identified as the heat shock protein DnaK, the Hsp70 homolog in E. coli. The interaction between the peptide and the chaperone is stereospecific, given that a resin prepared with the all- d enantiomer failed to retain the protein. In vitro, Bac7(1-35) formed a complex with DnaK with an affinity comparable to that of other known high-affinity peptide ligands. In addition, at 10–100μM concentration, the peptide inhibited the protein refolding activity of the complete DnaK/DnaJ/GrpE/ATP molecular chaperone system in a dose-dependent manner. Despite these results, the in vitro sensitivity to the peptide, under growth permitting conditions, of DnaK-deficient E. coli strains was not significantly affected compared to the wild-type strain. This suggests that, apart from DnaK, other vital targets for the proline-rich AMPs are present in susceptible bacteria.International Journal of Peptide Research and Therapeutics 04/2012; 15(2):147-155. · 1.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The hsp70 chaperone DnaK from E. coli plays a major role in cellular stress response and is involved in assisted protein folding in vivo. By screening a combinatorial peptide library, we identified several DnaK-specific peptide ligands with nanomolar affinities, which are able to inhibit the secondary amide peptide bond cis/trans isomerase (APIase) activity of DnaK, as well as DnaK/DnaJ/GrpE-assisted refolding of firefly luciferase. Our designed DnaK inhibitors have the capability to penetrate E. coli cells and feature a high protease resistance. Once inside the cell, they physically target DnaK. NMR-based (1)H/(15)N-HSQC experiments furthermore confirmed that the designed peptidic ligands all bind in an identical manner to the conventional peptide-binding site of DnaK. The subsequent blocking of DnaK function apparently results in the observed antibacterial effects on E. coli cells, with minimum inhibitory concentrations in the range of 100 microM.ChemBioChem 08/2010; 11(12):1727-37. · 3.74 Impact Factor