Fatty acyl benzamido antibacterials based on inhibition of DnaK-catalyzed protein folding.
ABSTRACT We have reported that the hsp70 chaperone DnaK from Escherichia coli might assist protein folding by catalyzing the cis/trans isomerization of secondary amide peptide bonds in unfolded or partially folded proteins. In this study a series of fatty acylated benzamido inhibitors of the cis/trans isomerase activity of DnaK was developed and tested for antibacterial effects in E. coli MC4100 cells. N(alpha)-[Tetradecanoyl-(4-aminomethylbenzoyl)]-l-asparagine is the most effective antibacterial with a minimal inhibitory concentration of 100 +/- 20 microg/ml. The compounds were shown to compete with fluorophore-labeled sigma(32)-derived peptide for the peptide binding site of DnaK and to increase the fraction of aggregated proteins in heat-shocked bacteria. Despite its inability to serve as a folding helper in vivo a DnaK-inhibitor complex was still able to sequester an unfolded protein in vitro. Structure activity relationships revealed a distinct dependence of DnaK-assisted refolding of luciferase on the fatty acyl chain length, whereas the minimal inhibitory concentration was most sensitive to the structural nature of the benzamido core. We conclude that the isomerase activity of DnaK is a major survival factor in the heat shock response of bacteria and that small molecule inhibitors can lead to functional inactivation of DnaK and thus will display antibacterial activity.
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ABSTRACT: The molecular chaperone, heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70), acts at multiple steps in a protein's life cycle, including during the processes of folding, trafficking, remodeling and degradation. To accomplish these various tasks, the activity of Hsp70 is shaped by a host of co-chaperones, which bind to the core chaperone and influence its functions. Genetic studies have strongly linked Hsp70 and its co-chaperones to numerous diseases, including cancer, neurodegeneration and microbial pathogenesis, yet the potential of this chaperone as a therapeutic target remains largely underexplored. Here, we review the current state of Hsp70 as a drug target, with a special emphasis on the important challenges and opportunities imposed by its co-chaperones, protein-protein interactions and allostery.Current topics in medicinal chemistry 10/2009; 9(15):1337-51. · 4.47 Impact Factor
Article: Mining mammalian genomes for folding competent proteins using Tat-dependent genetic selection in Escherichia coli.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Recombinant expression of eukaryotic proteins in Escherichia coli is often limited by poor folding and solubility. To address this problem, we employed a recently developed genetic selection for protein folding and solubility based on the bacterial twin-arginine translocation (Tat) pathway to rapidly identify properly folded recombinant proteins or soluble protein domains of mammalian origin. The coding sequences for 29 different mammalian polypeptides were cloned as sandwich fusions between an N-terminal Tat export signal and a C-terminal selectable marker, namely beta-lactamase. Hence, expression of the selectable marker and survival on selective media was linked to Tat export of the target mammalian protein. Since the folding quality control feature of the Tat pathway prevents export of misfolded proteins, only correctly folded fusion proteins reached the periplasm and conferred cell survival. In general, the ability to confer growth was found to relate closely to the solubility profile and molecular weight of the protein, although other features such as number of contiguous hydrophobic amino acids and cysteine content may also be important. These results highlight the capacity of Tat selection to reveal the folding potential of mammalian proteins and protein domains without the need for structural or functional information about the target protein.Protein Science 10/2009; 18(12):2537-49. · 2.80 Impact Factor
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 03/2010; 53(12):4585-602. · 4.80 Impact Factor