Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells is an optimal approach for plastic surgery.
ABSTRACT Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are able to differentiate into a variety of cell types, offering promising approaches for stem cell-mediated tissue regeneration. Here, we explored the potential of utilizing MSCs to reconstruct orofacial tissue, thereby altering the orofacial appearance. We demonstrated that bone marrow MSCs were capable of generating bone structures and bone-associated marrow elements on the surfaces of the orofacial bone. This resulted in significant recontouring of the facial appearance in mouse and swine. Notably, the newly formed bone and associated marrow tissues integrated with the surfaces of the recipient bones and re-established a functional bone marrow organ-like system. These data suggested that MSC-mediated tissue regeneration led to a body structure extension, with the re-establishment of all functional components necessary for maintaining the bone and associated marrow organ. In addition, we found that the subcutaneous transplantation of another population of MSCs, the human periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs), could form substantial amounts of collagen fibers and improve facial wrinkles in mouse. By contrast, bone marrow MSCs failed to survive at 8 weeks post-transplantation under the conditions used for the PDLSC transplantation. This study suggested that the mutual interactions between donor MSCs and recipient microenvironment determine long-term outcome of the functional tissue regeneration. Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest is found at the end of this article.
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ABSTRACT: Periodontitis is a periodontal tissue infectious disease and the most common cause for tooth loss in adults. It has been linked to many systemic disorders, such as coronary artery disease, stroke, and diabetes. At present, there is no ideal therapeutic approach to cure periodontitis and achieve optimal periodontal tissue regeneration. In this study, we explored the potential of using autologous periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) to treat periodontal defects in a porcine model of periodontitis. The periodontal lesion was generated in the first molars area of miniature pigs by the surgical removal of bone and subsequent silk ligament suture around the cervical portion of the tooth. Autologous PDLSCs were obtained from extracted teeth of the miniature pigs and then expanded ex vivo to enrich PDLSC numbers. When transplanted into the surgically created periodontal defect areas, PDLSCs were capable of regenerating periodontal tissues, leading to a favorable treatment for periodontitis. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using stem cell-mediated tissue engineering to treat periodontal diseases.Stem Cells 05/2008; 26(4):1065-73. · 7.78 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The face distinguishes one human being from another. When the face is disfigured because of trauma, tumor removal, congenital anomalies, or chronic diseases, the patient has a strong desire for functional and esthetic restoration. Current practice of facial reconstruction using autologous grafts, synthetic fillers, and prostheses is frequently below the surgeon's and patient's expectations. Facial reconstruction is yet to take advantage of recent advances in seemingly unrelated fields of stem cell biology, chemical engineering, biomaterials, and tissue engineering. "Biosurgery," a new concept that we propose, will incorporate novel principles and strategies of bioactive cues, biopolymers, and/or cells to restore facial defects. Small facial defects can likely be reconstructed by cell homing and without cell transplantation. A critical advantage of cell homing is that agilely recruited endogenous cells have the potential to harness the host's innate capacity for regeneration, thus accelerating the rate of regulatory and commercialization processes for product development. Large facial defects, however, may not be restorable without cell delivery per our understanding at this time. New breakthrough in biosurgery will likely originate from integrated strategies of cell biology, cytokine biology, chemical engineering, biomaterials, and tissue engineering. Regardless of cell homing or cell delivery approaches, biosurgery not only will minimize surgical trauma and repetitive procedures, but also produce long-lasting results. At the same time, caution must be exercised against the development of products that lack scientific basis or dogmatic combination of cells, biomaterials, and biomolecules. Together, scientifically derived biosurgery will undoubtedly develop into new technologies that offer increasingly natural reconstruction and/or augmentation of the face.Tissue Engineering Part B Reviews 11/2009; 16(2):257-62. · 4.64 Impact Factor
Article: Skeletal myogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament stromal cells isolated from orthodontically extracted premolars.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To investigate the stem cell-like characteristics of human periodontal ligament (PDL) stromal cells outgrown from orthodontically extracted premolars and to evaluate the potential for myogenic differentiation. PDL stromal cells were obtained from extracted premolars by using the outgrowth method. Cell morphological features, self-replication capability, and the presence of cell-surface markers, along with osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic differentiation, were confirmed. In addition, myogenic differentiation was induced by the use of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza) for DNA demethylation. PDL stromal cells showed growth patterns and morphological features similar to those of fibroblasts. In contrast, the proliferation rates of premolar PDL stromal cells were similar to those of bone marrow and adipogenic stem cells. PDL stromal cells expressed surface markers of human mesenchymal stem cells (i.e., CD90 and CD105), but not those of hematopoietic stem cells (i.e., CD31 and CD34). PDL stromal cells were differentiated into osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic lineages. Myotube structures were induced in PDL stromal cells after 5-Aza pretreatment, but not in the absence of 5-Aza pretreatment. PDL stromal cells isolated from extracted premolars can potentially be a good source of postnatal stem cells for oromaxillofacial regeneration in bone and muscle.Korean Journal of Orthodontics 10/2012; 42(5):249-54.