Factors contributing to sleep disturbance and hypnotic drug use in hemodialysis patients.
ABSTRACT Sleep disturbance and the use of hypnotic medications are common in patients on hemodialysis. Factors that contribute to sleep disturbance and the use of hypnotic medications in hemodialysis patients were investigated.
With the use of a questionnaire-based survey, we examined the prevalence of symptoms that reflect sleep disorders such as insomnia, restless legs syndrome (RLS), and snoring and use of hypnotic medications in 252 hemodialysis patients.
The overall prevalence of insomnia was 59.1%, with the prevalence of difficulty in initiating sleep (DIS), difficulty in maintaining sleep (DMS), and early morning awakening (EMA) being 47.6, 24.2, and 28.2%, respectively. Daytime sleepiness and habitual snoring were reported by 42.5 and 33.7%, respectively. The prevalence of routine use of hypnotic drugs was 25.8%. Both RLS and age were significantly associated with insomnia [odds ratio (OR), 3.75; p 0.001, OR, 1.03; p < 0.01]. RLS was a significant factor for DIS, DMS, and EMA (OR, 2.26; p < 0.05, OR, 3.44; p < 0.0005, OR, 4.25; p < 0.0005) and age was a significant factor for DMS and EMA (OR, 1.03; p = 0.053, OR, 1.05; p < 0.005). Both insomnia and snoring were associated with the use of hypnotic drugs (OR, 2.97; p < 0.001, 1.59; p=0.13).
Both RLS and sleep-disordered breathing may contribute to sleep disturbance in hemodialysis patients. RLS in particular may be an important factor in insomnia, which in turn is likely responsible for the high prevalence of hypnotic drug use in hemodialysis patients.
Conference Paper: Digital sliding mode tuning control using a fuzzy mechanism[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In a sampled-data system, the sliding mode control output can change only at the sampling instants. The system state deviates from the sliding surface unavoidably. Discrete-time implementation of the switching type continuous-time sliding mode controller causes system chatterings. An idea of a non-switching type of discrete equivalent control is proposed for chattering elimination. In this paper, a fuzzy mechanism is introduced into the digital sliding mode control design. The proof and a numerical example show that the goal of the discrete-time sliding mode is attained successfully.Networking, Sensing and Control, 2004 IEEE International Conference on; 02/2004
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ABSTRACT: Objective: Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is known to be associated with chronic renal failure (CRF) patients on hemodialysis, however the prevalence of RLS in CRF patients on hemodialysis is variable due to different diagnostic criteria or dialysis technique. A few reports have indicated the association between RLS symptom and lower life quality in CRF patients on hemodialysis. This study aims to investigate the prevalence of RLS and its association with the quality of life in CRF patients of a single dialysis unit in Korea. Methods: A total of 83 Korean CRF patients on hemodialysis in the Korea University Hospital were examined. International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group (IRLSSG) criteria and International Restless Legs Scale (IRLS) were used to determine the diagnosis and severity of RLS. Questionnaires including Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS), Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS), and Medical Outcome Study Form-36 (SF-36) were administered to all the patients for the assessment of sleep and quality of life. Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) and Clinical Global Impression (CGI) were also measured for depression and status of mental illness by psychiatrist. Results: Of the 83 patients, 31 (37.3%) patients were found to have RLS and 43 (51.8%) patients met at least one of the RLS diagnostic criteria. The AIS (t=2.40, p=0.019), ESS (t=2.41, p=0.018), HDRS (t=3.85, p01/2007; 14(2).
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ABSTRACT: Subjective sleep complaints have been reported in up to 80% of patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD). In these patients, sleep disturbances manifesting as insomnia, sleep apnea syndrome, restless leg syndrome (RLS), periodic limb movement disorder and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) have been frequently reported. Moreover, studies about the role of dialysis shift on sleep abnormalities, morbidity and mortality are still scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of dialysis shift on the quality of sleep and sleep abnormalities in patients with ESRD. We studied one hundred consecutive patients from a dialysis center. Quality of sleep was assessed by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and subjective EDS by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Restless leg syndrome was diagnosed using the four minimum criteria defined by the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group. Clinical and laboratory parameters were obtained by interview and chart review. Adequacy of dialysis was evaluated by the Kt/V index. Poor quality sleep (PSQI>6) was found in 75% of cases and was associated with RLS (p=0.004) and with snoring (p=0.016). EDS (ESS>10) was present in 28% of cases. Patients with EDS (1.33+/-0.29) had lower values of the Kt/v index (P=0.01) than those without EDS (1.52+/-0.32). RLS was present in 48% of cases. Irrespective of dialysis shift, poor quality sleep, EDS and RLS were not different among patients. Poor quality sleep, EDS and RLS were common and not related to dialysis shift.Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira 11/2007; 53(6):492-6. DOI:10.1590/S0104-42302007000600014 · 0.92 Impact Factor