Factors contributing to sleep disturbance and hypnotic drug use in hemodialysis patients.
ABSTRACT Sleep disturbance and the use of hypnotic medications are common in patients on hemodialysis. Factors that contribute to sleep disturbance and the use of hypnotic medications in hemodialysis patients were investigated.
With the use of a questionnaire-based survey, we examined the prevalence of symptoms that reflect sleep disorders such as insomnia, restless legs syndrome (RLS), and snoring and use of hypnotic medications in 252 hemodialysis patients.
The overall prevalence of insomnia was 59.1%, with the prevalence of difficulty in initiating sleep (DIS), difficulty in maintaining sleep (DMS), and early morning awakening (EMA) being 47.6, 24.2, and 28.2%, respectively. Daytime sleepiness and habitual snoring were reported by 42.5 and 33.7%, respectively. The prevalence of routine use of hypnotic drugs was 25.8%. Both RLS and age were significantly associated with insomnia [odds ratio (OR), 3.75; p 0.001, OR, 1.03; p < 0.01]. RLS was a significant factor for DIS, DMS, and EMA (OR, 2.26; p < 0.05, OR, 3.44; p < 0.0005, OR, 4.25; p < 0.0005) and age was a significant factor for DMS and EMA (OR, 1.03; p = 0.053, OR, 1.05; p < 0.005). Both insomnia and snoring were associated with the use of hypnotic drugs (OR, 2.97; p < 0.001, 1.59; p=0.13).
Both RLS and sleep-disordered breathing may contribute to sleep disturbance in hemodialysis patients. RLS in particular may be an important factor in insomnia, which in turn is likely responsible for the high prevalence of hypnotic drug use in hemodialysis patients.
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ABSTRACT: The objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of cognitive behavioral therapy [sleep-related behavior modification and progressive muscle relaxation on insomnia of maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients] on improving insomnia of MHD patients. 103 MHD patients complicated with insomnia were randomly assigned to treatment (n = 52) and control (n = 51) groups. The control group was treated with conventional hemodialysis, and the treatment group was additionally treated with cognitive behavioral therapy for 3 months (sleep-related behavior modification and progressive muscle relaxation). All cases were assessed by Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90) and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) before and 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 weeks after treatment. Fifty-one patients in the treatment group and 47 patients in the control group completed the experiments. After treatment, the total mean scores were (1.94 ± 0.50/2.29 ± 0.31); scores of somatization, depression, anxiety, hostility, and additional items were (1.87 ± 0.58/2.56 ± 0.26), (2.25 ± 0.80/2.79 ± 0.50), (1.79 ± 0.26/2.37 ± 0.34), (1.71 ± 0.46/2.25 ± 0.43), and (1.91 ± 0.67/2.26 ± 0.59) in SCL-90, respectively. The total scores for PSQI were (12.63 ± 2.27/16.40 ± 2.16); scores of subjective sleep quality, sleep latency, sleep duration, habitual sleep efficiency, sleep disturbance, hypnotics, and daytime dysfunction which were (1.98 ± 0.76/2.57 ± 0.58), (1.75 ± 0.59/2.60 ± 0.50), (2.10 ± 0.50/2.62 ± 0.53), (2.06 ± 0.47/2.57 ± 0.54), (2.04 ± 0.69/2.45 ± 0.72), (1.02 ± 0.79/1.51 ± 0.98), and (1.69 ± 0.55/2.09 ± 0.58), respectively, were significantly lower in the treatment group compared with the control group. However, there were no significant differences in the scores of factors of obsessive-compulsive (2.26 ± 0.62/2.32 ± 0.38), interpersonal sensitivity (2.23 ± 0.64/2.43 ± 0.47), phobic anxiety (1.98 ± 0.62/2.01 ± 0.67), paranoid ideation (1.55 ± 0.43/1.69 ± 0.39), and psychoticism (1.57 ± 0.46/1.66 ± 0.49). The conclusion is that sleep-related behavior modification in combination with progressive muscle relaxation effectively improved the mental state and sleep quality of MHD patients with insomnia.Cell biochemistry and biophysics 02/2014; · 3.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: Insomnia is common in patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis (MHD). Long-term use of sedative-hypnotic agents is often correlated with increasing adverse effects. Auricular acupressure therapy (AAT) applied to specific auricular acupoints for managing insomnia has achieved favorable outcomes in a hemodialysis unit. This pilot study was performed to demonstrate the potential of AAT for insomnia in MHD patients and to prepare for a future randomized controlled trial. Methods: Eligible patients were enrolled into this descriptive pilot study and received AAT designed to manage insomnia for 4 weeks. Questionnaires that used the Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI) were completed at baseline, after a 4-week intervention, and 1 month after completion of treatment. Sleep quality and other clinical characteristics, including sleeping pills taken, were statistically compared between different time points. Results: A total of 22 patients were selected as eligible participants and completed the treatment and questionnaires. The mean global PSQI score was significantly decreased after AAT intervention (p<0.05). Participants reported improved sleep quality (p<0.01), shorter sleep latency (p<0.05), less sleep disturbance (p<0.01), and less daytime dysfunction (p=0.01). They also exhibited less dependency on sleep medications, indicated by the reduction in weekly estazolam consumption from 6.98±4.44 pills to 4.23±2.66 pills (p<0.01). However, these improvements were not preserved 1 month after treatment. Conclusion: In this single-center pilot study, complementary AAT for MHD patients with severe insomnia was feasible and well tolerated and showed encouraging results for sleep quality.Journal of alternative and complementary medicine (New York, N.Y.) 02/2014; · 1.69 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objective: Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is known to be associated with chronic renal failure (CRF) patients on hemodialysis, however the prevalence of RLS in CRF patients on hemodialysis is variable due to different diagnostic criteria or dialysis technique. A few reports have indicated the association between RLS symptom and lower life quality in CRF patients on hemodialysis. This study aims to investigate the prevalence of RLS and its association with the quality of life in CRF patients of a single dialysis unit in Korea. Methods: A total of 83 Korean CRF patients on hemodialysis in the Korea University Hospital were examined. International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group (IRLSSG) criteria and International Restless Legs Scale (IRLS) were used to determine the diagnosis and severity of RLS. Questionnaires including Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS), Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS), and Medical Outcome Study Form-36 (SF-36) were administered to all the patients for the assessment of sleep and quality of life. Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) and Clinical Global Impression (CGI) were also measured for depression and status of mental illness by psychiatrist. Results: Of the 83 patients, 31 (37.3%) patients were found to have RLS and 43 (51.8%) patients met at least one of the RLS diagnostic criteria. The AIS (t=2.40, p=0.019), ESS (t=2.41, p=0.018), HDRS (t=3.85, pSleep Medicine and Psychophysiology. 01/2007; 14(2).