The effect of cost sharing on employees with diabetes.

Department of Policy Analysis and Management, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA.
The American journal of managed care (Impact Factor: 2.17). 01/2007; 12 Spec no.:SP20-6.
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: Long term hyperglycemia leads to development of complications associated with diabetes. Diabetic complications are now a global health problem without effective therapeutic approach. Hyperglycemia and oxidative stress are important components for the development of diabetic complications. Over the past few decades, herbal medicines have attracted much attention as potential therapeutic agents in the prevention and treatment of diabetic complications due to their multiple targets and less toxic side effects. To review current available knowledge of medicinal herbs for attenuation or management of diabetic complications and their underlying mechanisms. Bibliographic investigation was carried out by scrutinizing classical text books and peer reviewed papers, consulting worldwide accepted scientific databases (SCOPUS, PUBMED, SCIELO, NISCAIR, Google Scholar) to retrieve available published literature. The inclusion criteria for the selection of plants based upon all medicinal herbs and their active compounds with attributed potentials in relieving diabetic complications. Moreover, plants which have potential effect in ameliorating oxidative stress in diabetic animals have been included. Overall, 238 articles were reviewed for plant literature and out of the reviewed literature, 127 articles of were selected for the study. Various medicinal plants/plant extracts containing flavonoids, alkaloids, phenolic compounds, terpenoids, saponins and phytosterol type chemical constituents were found to be effective in the management of diabetic complications. This effect might be attributed to amelioration of persistent hyperglycemia, oxidative stress and modulation of various metabolic pathways involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. Screening chemical candidate from herbal medicine might be a promising approach for new drug discovery to treat the diabetic complications. There is still a dire need to explore the mechanism of action of various plant extracts and their toxicity profile and to determine their role in therapy of diabetic complications. Moreover, a perfect rodent model which completely mimics human diabetic complications should be developed.
    Journal of ethnopharmacology 09/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2013.08.051 · 2.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To examine cost responsiveness and total costs associated with a simulated "value-based" insurance design for statin therapy in a Medicare population with diabetes. Four-year panels were constructed from the 1997-2005 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey selected by self-report or claims-based diagnoses of diabetes in year 1 and use of statins in year 2 (N = 899). We computed the number of 30-day statin prescription fills, out-of-pocket and third-party drug costs, and Medicare Part A and Part B spending. Multivariate ordinary least squares regression models predicted statin fills as a function of out-of-pocket costs, and a generalized linear model with log link predicted Medicare spending as a function of number of fills, controlling for baseline characteristics. Estimated coefficients were used to simulate changes in fills associated with co-payment caps from $25 to $1 and to compute changes in third-party payments and Medicare cost offsets associated with incremental fills. Analyses were stratified by patient cardiovascular event risk. A simulated out-of-pocket price of $25 [$1] increased plan drug spending by $340 [$794] and generated Medicare Part A/B savings of $262 [$531]; savings for high-risk patients were $558 [$1193], generating a net saving of $249 [$415]. Reducing statin co-payments for Medicare beneficiaries with diabetes resulted in modestly increased use and reduced medical spending. The value-based insurance design simulation strategy met financial feasibility criteria but only for higher-risk patients.
    Value in Health 05/2012; 15(3):404-11. DOI:10.1016/j.jval.2012.01.008 · 2.89 Impact Factor
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