Job stress interventions and the organization of work

University of Bern, Department of Psychology, Muesmattstr 45, CH-3000 Bern 9, Switzerland.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health (Impact Factor: 3.45). 01/2007; 32(6):515-27. DOI: 10.5271/sjweh.1056
Source: PubMed


Interventions that aim at improving health by changing the organization of work-in terms of task characteristics, work conditions, and social aspects-have shown their potential, but results are mixed, and many studies do not use their methodological potential. It is proposed that interventions at the organizational level are likely to have a more diverse effect than at the individual level, as the number of subsystems, with potentially diverging interests, is larger. Even well-implemented interventions are not likely to lead to improvements in all parameters for all participants, and trade-offs have to be considered. Methodological improvement is necessary but should not only focus on design issues, but also on careful documentation and subgroup analyses. A combination of person-focused and organization-focused approaches is the most promising. Finally, evidence points to the limited utility of economic arguments for the acceptance of health promotion projects; the necessity of professional trust is therefore emphasized.

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Available from: Norbert Semmer, Jan 16, 2015
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    • "Second, organizational constraints meant that it was not possible to allocate teams at random to different training conditions: This is a common problem in organizational intervention research (Richardson & Rothstein, 2008). When random allocation is not possible, outcome-only evaluation methods do not yield sufficient data to illuminate change processes (Semmer, 2006). Third, understanding the relative impact of (a) team implementation , (b) the team member training, (c) the team leader training, and (d) examining the interactions between them was likely to involve the examination of many constructs in complex mechanisms. "
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    ABSTRACT: A mixed methods approach was applied to examine the effects of a naturally occurring teamwork intervention supported with training. The first objective was to integrate qualitative process evaluation and quantitative effect evaluation to examine how and why the training influence intervention outcomes. The intervention (N = 328) was supplemented with four training conditions (no training, team member training, team leader training, and a combination of training types). The second objective was to examine whether different training conditions support team member training in isolation, but not in combination, led to positive outcomes. The integrated analysis of qualitative and quantitative data indicated that a number of contextual factors interacted with training experiences and outcomes to influence the success of team intervention.
    Journal of Mixed Methods Research 06/2015; DOI:10.1177/1558689815589050 · 1.91 Impact Factor
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    • "There is a growing body of research that has found considerable variation in employee exposure to organizational-level occupational health interventions and perceptions of the impact of those interventions (Mikkelsen & Saksvik, 1999; NytrØ, Saksvik, Mikkelsen, Bohle, & Quinlan, 2000; Randall, Griffiths, & Cox, 2005; Randall, Nielsen, & Tvedt, 2009; Semmer, 2006, 2003). Two literature reviews have shown how previous studies have incorporated measures of exposure or participants' appraisals of programme outcome measures (Murta, Sanderson, & Oldenburg, 2007; Roen, Arai, Roberts, & Popay, 2006), but a need for additional studies combining process variables with outcome measures has been emphasized (Nielsen & Randall, 2012; K. Nielsen & Simonsen Abildgaard, 2013; Randall et al., 2009). "
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to investigate the association between employees' perceptions of their exposure to an organizational-level occupational health intervention and its psychosocial outcomes. Participants were employees of an insurance firm (N = 1084) in Quebec, Canada. The intervention was designed to reduce adverse psychosocial work factors (high psychological demands, low decision latitude, low social support and low rewards). Departmental managers were responsible for implementing changes to reduce exposure to these factors. Employees' perceptions of exposure to the intervention and its impact on their work were measured in 2007 through questionnaires. Psychological demands, decision latitude, social support and rewards measured in 2005 and 2007 were used to assess outcomes. Employees who perceived that they had been exposed to the intervention changes showed more improvement in outcomes than those who did not perceive changes. The greatest differences in outcomes were found in those participants who perceived that workplace changes had improved their work situation as compared to those who perceived the changes as neutral or negative. The results suggest that measurement of employee-perceived impact of each intervention change on their work situation may be even more important than actual exposure, and should be included in the measurement of exposure to organization-level interventions.
    Work and Stress 04/2014; 28(2). DOI:10.1080/02678373.2014.907370 · 3.00 Impact Factor
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    • "Examples of these interventions include job redesign, developing clear job descriptions, forming joint employee and management committees to increase worker involvement, and increasing employee participation in decision-making (Murphy, 1999). Available evidence indicates that organization-focused interventions can be effective provided that stressful working conditions have been properly identified and that the interventions have been designed and implemented accordingly (Semmer, 2006). Some studies have found that organization-focused interventions have resulted in improved organizational outcomes (e.g., reduced absenteeism and improved workplace morale). "
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    ABSTRACT: PurposeIn a 2011 survey sponsored by the American Nurses Association (ANA), nurses identified the acute and chronic effects of stress and overwork as one of their two top safety and health concerns. Design/MethodsA review of the literature was conducted to investigate the impact that job stress has on the health and safety of nursing professionals and the role that working conditions and job characteristics play in fostering job stress. FindingsStrong evidence supporting links between job stress, safety and health in general and within different types of nursing populations exists. Working conditions also contribute to the development of job stress. Conclusion Combining and integrating person-focused strategies designed to build nurses' ability to manage stress at the individual level with organization-focused strategies that eliminate stressful working conditions is critical to the reduction and prevention of job stress among nursing professionals.
    Rehabilitation nursing: the official journal of the Association of Rehabilitation Nurses 03/2014; 39(2). DOI:10.1002/rnj.97 · 1.15 Impact Factor
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