Prognostic value of renal function in patients with cardiac resynchronization therapy.
ABSTRACT Renal insufficiency is prevalent in patients with heart failure and indicates poor prognosis. We examine (i) the relationship between left ventricular (LV) reverse remodeling (RR) and renal function and (ii) the prognostic value of renal function in patients receiving cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT).
The relationship between LV-RR, defined as a 10% reduction in LV end-systolic volume, and renal function was examined in 85 consecutive patients receiving CRT. Echocardiographic assessment and renal function tests were performed before and 3 months after CRT. All-cause mortality and the composite of mortality or heart failure hospitalization between those with preserved or deteriorated renal function at 3 months were assessed by Kaplan Meier analysis.
There was a slight improvement in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in those with LV-RR (n=44; 51.7+/-20.4 vs. 54.2+/-19.1 ml/min/1.73 m2; p=0.024) while a significant deterioration (n=41; 61.9+/-17 vs. 48.8+/-13.0 ml/min/1.73 m2; p<0.001) was observed in those without LV-RR. The change (Delta) in GFR was significantly correlated with DeltaLV end-systolic/diastolic volumes and DeltaLV ejection fraction. After follow up of 856.4+/-576.8 days, patients with preserved renal function had significant lower all-cause mortality (log rank chi2=4.82, p=0.029) and the composite endpoints (log rank chi2=5.04, p=0.025).
Preservation of renal function was observed in patients with systolic heart failure and renal insufficiency responding to CRT and provided prognostic information. A rapid decline in renal function after CRT was associated with worse clinical outcomes.
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ABSTRACT: The prevalence, prognostic import, and impact of renal insufficiency on the benefits of ACE inhibitors and beta-blockers in community-dwelling patients with heart failure are uncertain. We analyzed data from a prospective cohort of 754 patients with heart failure who had ejection fraction, serum creatinine, and weight measured at baseline. Median age was 69 years, and 43% had an ejection fraction > or =35%. By the Cockcroft-Gault equation, 118 patients (16%) had creatinine clearances < or =30 mL/min and 301 (40%) had creatinine clearances between 30 and 59 mL/min. During follow-up (median 926 days), 385 patients (37%) died. Even after adjustment for all other prognostic factors, survival was significantly associated with renal function (P=0.002) in patients with either systolic or diastolic dysfunction; patients exhibited a 1% increase in mortality for each 1-mL/min decrease in creatinine clearance. The associations with 1-year mortality reductions were similar for ACE inhibitors (OR 0.46 [95% CI 0.26 to 0.82] versus OR 0.28 [95% CI 0.11 to 0.70]) and beta-blockers (OR 0.40 [95% CI 0.23 to 0.70] versus OR 0.41 [95% CI 0.19 to 0.85]) in patients with creatinine clearances <60 mL/min versus > or =60 mL/min, although these drugs were used less frequently in patients with renal insufficiency. Renal insufficiency is more prevalent in patients with heart failure than previously reported and is an independent prognostic factor in diastolic and systolic dysfunction. ACE inhibitors and beta-blockers were associated with similar reductions in mortality in patients with and without renal insufficiency.Circulation 04/2004; 109(8):1004-9. · 15.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Approximately half of patients with overt congestive heart failure (CHF) have diastolic dysfunction without reduced ejection fraction (EF). Yet, the prevalence of diastolic dysfunction and its relation to systolic dysfunction and CHF in the community remain undefined. To determine the prevalence of CHF and preclinical diastolic dysfunction and systolic dysfunction in the community and determine if diastolic dysfunction is predictive of all-cause mortality. Cross-sectional survey of 2042 randomly selected residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota, aged 45 years or older from June 1997 through September 2000. Doppler echocardiographic assessment of systolic and diastolic function. Presence of CHF diagnosis by review of medical records with designation as validated CHF if Framingham criteria are satisfied. Subjects without a CHF diagnosis but with diastolic or systolic dysfunction were considered as having either preclinical diastolic or preclinical systolic dysfunction. The prevalence of validated CHF was 2.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6%-2.8%) with 44% having an EF higher than 50%. Overall, 20.8% (95% CI, 19.0%-22.7%) of the population had mild diastolic dysfunction, 6.6% (95% CI, 5.5%-7.8%) had moderate diastolic dysfunction, and 0.7% (95% CI, 0.3%-1.1%) had severe diastolic dysfunction with 5.6% (95% CI, 4.5%-6.7%) of the population having moderate or severe diastolic dysfunction with normal EF. The prevalence of any systolic dysfunction (EF < or =50%) was 6.0% (95% CI, 5.0%-7.1%) with moderate or severe systolic dysfunction (EF < or =40%) being present in 2.0% (95% CI, 1.4%-2.5%). CHF was much more common among those with systolic or diastolic dysfunction than in those with normal ventricular function. However, even among those with moderate or severe diastolic or systolic dysfunction, less than half had recognized CHF. In multivariate analysis, controlling for age, sex, and EF, mild diastolic dysfunction (hazard ratio, 8.31 [95% CI, 3.00-23.1], P<.001) and moderate or severe diastolic dysfunction (hazard ratio, 10.17 [95% CI, 3.28-31.0], P<.001) were predictive of all-cause mortality. In the community, systolic dysfunction is frequently present in individuals without recognized CHF. Furthermore, diastolic dysfunction as rigorously defined by comprehensive Doppler techniques is common, often not accompanied by recognized CHF, and associated with marked increases in all-cause mortality.JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 01/2003; 289(2):194-202. · 29.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cardiac resynchronization reduces symptoms and improves left ventricular function in many patients with heart failure due to left ventricular systolic dysfunction and cardiac dyssynchrony. We evaluated its effects on morbidity and mortality. Patients with New York Heart Association class III or IV heart failure due to left ventricular systolic dysfunction and cardiac dyssynchrony who were receiving standard pharmacologic therapy were randomly assigned to receive medical therapy alone or with cardiac resynchronization. The primary end point was the time to death from any cause or an unplanned hospitalization for a major cardiovascular event. The principal secondary end point was death from any cause. A total of 813 patients were enrolled and followed for a mean of 29.4 months. The primary end point was reached by 159 patients in the cardiac-resynchronization group, as compared with 224 patients in the medical-therapy group (39 percent vs. 55 percent; hazard ratio, 0.63; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.51 to 0.77; P<0.001). There were 82 deaths in the cardiac-resynchronization group, as compared with 120 in the medical-therapy group (20 percent vs. 30 percent; hazard ratio 0.64; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.48 to 0.85; P<0.002). As compared with medical therapy, cardiac resynchronization reduced the interventricular mechanical delay, the end-systolic volume index, and the area of the mitral regurgitant jet; increased the left ventricular ejection fraction; and improved symptoms and the quality of life (P<0.01 for all comparisons). In patients with heart failure and cardiac dyssynchrony, cardiac resynchronization improves symptoms and the quality of life and reduces complications and the risk of death. These benefits are in addition to those afforded by standard pharmacologic therapy. The implantation of a cardiac-resynchronization device should routinely be considered in such patients.New England Journal of Medicine 04/2005; 352(15):1539-49. · 51.66 Impact Factor