A complete analysis of the laser beam deflection systems used in cantilever-based systems.
ABSTRACT A working model has been developed which can be used to significantly increase the accuracy of cantilever deflection measurements using optical beam techniques (used in cantilever-based sensors and atomic force microscopes), while simultaneously simplifying their use. By using elementary geometric optics and standard vector analysis it is possible, without any fitted or adjustable parameters, to completely and accurately describe the relationship between the cantilever deflection and the signal measured by a position sensitive photo-detector. By arranging the geometry of the cantilever/optical beam, it is possible to tailor the detection system to make it more sensitive at different stages of the cantilever deflection or to simply linearize the relationship between the cantilever deflection and the measured detector signal. Supporting material and software has been made available for download at http://www.physics.mun.ca/beauliu_lab/papers/cantilever_analysis.htm so that the reader may take full advantage of the model presented herein with minimal effort.
Article: A force-matching method for quantitative hardness measurements by atomic force microscopy with diamond-tipped sapphire cantilevers.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We present a new method to improve the accuracy of force application and hardness measurements in hard surfaces by using low-force (<50 μN) nanoindentation technique with a cube-corner diamond tip mounted on an atomic force microscopy (AFM) sapphire cantilever. A force calibration procedure based on the force-matching method, which explicitly includes the tip geometry and the tip-substrate deformation during calibration, is proposed. A computer algorithm to automate this calibration procedure is also made available. The proposed methodology is verified experimentally by conducting AFM nanoindentations on fused quartz, Si(100) and a 100-nm-thick film of gold deposited on Si(100). Comparison of experimental results with finite element simulations and literature data yields excellent agreement. In particular, hardness measurements using AFM nanoindentation in fused quartz show a systematic error less than 2% when applying the force-matching method, as opposed to 37% with the standard protocol. Furthermore, the residual impressions left in the different substrates are examined in detail using non-contact AFM imaging with the same diamond probe. The uncertainty of method to measure the projected area of contact at maximum force due to elastic recovery effects is also discussed.Ultramicroscopy 12/2010; 111(1):11-9. · 2.47 Impact Factor