Depression in Children and Adolescents. Linking Risk Research and Prevention

Department of Psychology and Human Development, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37203-5721, USA.
American Journal of Preventive Medicine (Impact Factor: 4.53). 01/2007; 31(6 Suppl 1):S104-25. DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2006.07.007
Source: PubMed


The National Institute of Mental Health has called for translational research linking basic knowledge about vulnerabilities that underlie mood disorders to the development of effective preventive interventions. This paper highlights research about risk factors for depression in children and adolescents and links it to current knowledge about interventions aimed at preventing depression in youth. Basic epidemiologic and clinical research indicates that increased risk for depression is associated with being female; a family history of depression, particularly in a parent; subclinical depressive symptoms; anxiety; stressful life events; neurobiological dysregulation; temperament/personality (e.g., neuroticism); negative cognitions; problems in self-regulation and coping; and interpersonal dysfunction. These vulnerabilities both increase individuals' chances of encountering stress and decrease their ability to deal with the stress once it occurs. Although several existing depression-prevention studies have targeted one or more of these risk factors, the efficacy of these various prevention programs for youth with different combinations of these risk factors needs to be investigated further. Most existing depression-prevention programs in youth have used cognitive-behavioral techniques, with some success. Other depression-prevention strategies have included training in coping, social problem solving, social skills, communication skills, and parenting. A comprehensive prevention program is recommended that includes multiple intervention components, each of which addresses risk and protective factors across different domains and levels of analysis.

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    • "As a result, research has sought to identify early family risk factors and child characteristics that can predict adolescent depressive symptoms, to enable early identification and mobilize preventative intervention measures that focus on early risk factors (e.g. Garber, 2006). "
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    ABSTRACT: The authors tested three possible pathways linking prenatal maternal depressive symptoms to adolescent depressive symptoms. These pathways went through childhood Irritability Symptoms, Anxiety/Depressive Symptoms or Conduct Problems. Data were collected from 3,963 mother-child pairs participating in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Measures include maternal depressive symptoms (pre- and postnatal); toddler temperament (2 years); childhood (7-13 years) irritability symptoms, anxiety/depressive symptoms, conduct problems, and adolescent depressive symptoms (16 years). Irritability Symptoms: This pathway linked sequentially - prenatal maternal depressive symptoms, toddler temperament (high perceived intensity and low perceived adaptability), childhood irritability symptoms, and adolescent depressive symptoms. Anxiety/Depressive symptoms: This pathway linked sequentially - prenatal maternal depressive symptoms, toddler temperament (negative perceived mood), childhood anxiety/depressive symptoms, and adolescent depressive symptoms. Childhood conduct problems were not associated with adolescent depressive symptoms, above and beyond irritability symptoms and anxiety/depressive symptoms. Results suggest evidence for two distinct developmental pathways to adolescent depressive symptoms that involve specific early and midchildhood features. © 2015 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
    Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 02/2015; 56(10). DOI:10.1111/jcpp.12395 · 6.46 Impact Factor
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    • "423 portanto, menor idade como fator protetivo era esperada e, é consistente com a literatura (Méndez et al., 2005; Rudolph, 2009; Galambos et al., 2004). Da mesma forma, a vulnerabilidade feminina para a depressão é bem documentada na literatura (APA, 2005; Garber, 2006). Como ocorrem em outros transtornos na infância e na adolescência, as duas variáveis, sexo e idade, podem estar relacionadas (Marsh & Grasham, 2005). "
    09/2014; 14(2). DOI:10.12957/epp.2014.12645
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    • "Evidence exists that negative cognitive structure and worldview are connected to anxiety and depression. Garber (2006) relates that cognitive theories of depression claim that individuals with negative beliefs about oneself, the world and the future, employ negative global attributions when confronted with stressful life events. They appraise stress and the consequences of events negatively which can lead to anxiety and depression. "
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    ABSTRACT: Anxiety and depression are complex mental health concerns affecting adolescents, and when experienced together the prognosis can be worsened. Current evidence based approaches used in social work interventions include cognitive behavioral therapy, dialectical therapy, and counselling incorporating psychotherapy and psychoeducation, however they do not work for all individuals and they are not holistic. This paper argues that spirituality is a missing element of current social work interventions for treating anxiety and depression. Yoga has emerged as one type of mind body spirit intervention that is more holistic in nature, and it is deemed to be a positive approach that can be included in social work interventions. Furthermore, the explicit incorporation of spirituality is seen as a necessary component of treatment. Literature pertaining to spirituality as an important dimension of life, mental health, coping and wellbeing provides a rationale for its inclusion into comprehensive multi-modal approaches. The HEALTHY group is highlighted as a comprehensive multi-modal mind body spirit approach that addresses the gap of explicitly attending to spirituality. Implications for practice are put forth regarding the need for research on this kind of comprehensive integrative mind body and spirit social work intervention on the outcomes for adolescents experiencing anxiety and depression.
    Journal of Religion & Spirituality in Social Work 08/2014; 33(3-4):236-253. DOI:10.1080/15426432.2014.930629
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