A Common Progenitor at the Heart of Development
ABSTRACT Formation of the heart requires the coordinated functions of cardiac myocytes, smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, and connective tissue elements. Several recent studies now reveal that these different cell types arise from a common progenitor (). These findings raise interesting questions about the lineage relationships of cardiovascular progenitor cell populations and suggest possibilities for cardiac repair in both congenital and acquired heart disease.
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ABSTRACT: Multipotent Isl1(+) heart progenitors give rise to three major cardiovascular cell types: cardiac, smooth muscle, and endothelial cells, and play a pivotal role in lineage diversification during cardiogenesis. A critical question is pinpointing when this cardiac-vascular lineage decision is made, and how this plasticity serves to coordinate cardiac chamber and vessel growth. The posterior domain of the Isl1-positive second heart field contributes to the SLN-positive atrial myocardium and myocardial sleeves in the cardiac inflow tract, where myocardial and vascular smooth muscle layers form anatomical and functional continuity. Herein, using a new atrial specific SLN-Cre knockin mouse line, we report that bipotent Isl1(+)/SLN(+) transient cell population contributes to cardiac as well as smooth muscle cells at the heart-vessel junction in cardiac inflow tract. The Isl1(+)/SLN(+) cells are capable of giving rise to cardiac and smooth muscle cells until late gestational stages. These data suggest that the cardiac and smooth muscle cells in the cardiac inflow tract share a common developmental origin. This article is part of a special issue entitled, "Cardiovascular Stem Cells Revisited".Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 10/2010; 50(2):337-45. DOI:10.1016/j.yjmcc.2010.10.009 · 5.22 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: microRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of highly conserved small non-coding RNAs that negatively regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally. miRNAs are known to mediate myriad cell processes, including proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. With more than 600 miRNAs identified in humans, it is generally believed that many miRNAs function through simultaneously inhibiting multiple regulatory mRNA targets, suggesting that miRNAs participate in regulating the expression of many, if not all, genes. While many miRNAs are expressed ubiquitously, some are expressed in a tissue specific manner. The muscle specific miR-1, miR-133 and miR-206 are perhaps the most studied and best-characterized miRNAs to date. Many studies demonstrate that these miRNAs are necessary for proper skeletal and cardiac muscle development and function, and have a profound influence on multiple myopathies, such as hypertrophy, dystrophy, and conduction defects.The international journal of biochemistry & cell biology 08/2010; 42(8):1252-5. DOI:10.1016/j.biocel.2009.03.002 · 4.24 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Embryonic stem cell differentiation recapitulates the diverse phenotypes of a developing embryo, traceable according to markers of lineage specification. At gastrulation, the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor, Flk-1 (KDR), identifies a mesoderm-restricted potential of embryonic stem cells. The multi-lineage propensity of Flk-1(+) progenitors mandates the mapping of fate-modifying co-factors in order to stratify differentiating cytotypes and predict lineage competency. Here, Flk-1-based selection of early embryonic stem cell progeny separated a population depleted of pluripotent (Oct4, Sox2) and endoderm (Sox17) markers. The gene expression profile of the Flk-1(+) population was notable for a significant upregulation in the vasculogenic Sox7 transcription factor, which overlapped with the emergence of primordial cardiac transcription factors GATA-4, Myocardin and Nkx2.5. Sorting the parental Flk-1(+) pool with the chemokine receptor CXCR4 to enrich the cardiopoietic subpopulation uncovered divergent Sox7 expression, with a 7-fold induction in non-cardiac compared to cardiac progenitors. Bioinformatic resolution sequestered a framework of gene expression relationship between Sox transcription factor family members and the Flk-1/CXCR4 axes with significant integration of beta-catenin signaling. Thus, differential Sox7 gene expression presents a novel biomarker profile, and possible regulatory switch, to distinguish cardiovascular pedigrees within Flk-1(+) multi-lineage progenitors.Differentiation 04/2009; 77(3):248-55. DOI:10.1016/j.diff.2008.10.012 · 2.84 Impact Factor