A comparison of three highly active antiretroviral treatment strategies consisting of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, protease inhibitors, or both in the presence of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors as initial therapy (CPCRA 058 FIRST Study): a long-term randomised trial.
ABSTRACT Long-term data from randomised trials on the consequences of treatment with a protease inhibitor (PI), non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI), or both are lacking. Here, we report results from the FIRST trial, which compared initial treatment strategies for clinical, immunological, and virological outcomes.
Between 1999 and 2002, 1397 antiretroviral-treatment-naive patients, presenting at 18 clinical trial units with 80 research sites in the USA, were randomly assigned in a ratio of 1:1:1 to a protease inhibitor (PI) strategy (PI plus nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor [NRTI]; n=470), a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) strategy (NNRTI plus NRTI; n=463), or a three-class strategy (PI plus NNRTI plus NRTI; n=464). Primary endpoints were a composite of an AIDS-defining event, death, or CD4 cell count decline to less than 200 cells per mm3 for the PI versus NNRTI comparison, and average change in CD4 cell count at or after 32 months for the three-class versus combined two-class comparison. Analyses were by intention-to-treat. This study is registered ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00000922.
1397 patients were assessed for the composite endpoint. A total of 388 participants developed the composite endpoint, 302 developed AIDS or died, and 188 died. NNRTI versus PI hazard ratios (HRs) for the composite endpoint, for AIDS or death, for death, and for virological failure were 1.02 (95% CI 0.79-1.31), 1.07 (0.80-1.41), 0.95 (0.66-1.37), and 0.66 (0.56-0.78), respectively. 1196 patients were assessed for the three-class versus combined two-class primary endpoint. Mean change in CD4 cell count at or after 32 months was +234 cells per mm3 and +227 cells per mm3 for the three-class and the combined two-class strategies (p=0.62), respectively. HRs (three-class vs combined two-class) for AIDS or death and virological failure were 1.15 (0.91-1.45) and 0.87 (0.75-1.00), respectively. HRs (three-class vs combined two-class) for AIDS or death were similar for participants with baseline CD4 cell counts of 200 cells per mm3 or less and of more than 200 cells per mm3 (p=0.38 for interaction), and for participants with baseline HIV RNA concentrations less than 100 000 copies per mL and 100,000 copies per mL or more (p=0.26 for interaction). Participants assigned the three-class strategy were significantly more likely to discontinue treatment because of toxic effects than were those assigned to the two-class strategies (HR 1.58; p<0.0001).
Initial treatment with either an NNRTI-based regimen or a PI-based regimen, but not both together, is a good strategy for long-term antiretroviral management in treatment-naive patients with HIV.
- SourceAvailable from: PubMed Central[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To determine the prevalence of virological failure and HIV drug resistance among Chinese patients one year after initiating lamivudine-based first-line antiretroviral treatment. A prospective cohort study with follow-up at 12 months was conducted in four urban sentinel sites in China. Antiretroviral naive patients ≥18 years old were recruited. Blood samples were collected for testing CD4 cell count, viral load, and (for samples with HIV-1 RNA ≥1000 copies/ml) genotyping of drug resistance. A total of 513 patients were enrolled in this cohort, of whom 448 (87.3%) were retained at 12 months. The median final CD4 cell count was 313 cells/mm(3), which increased from 192 cells/mm(3) at baseline (P<0.0001). Of the 448 remaining subjects, 394 (87.9%) had successful virological suppression (HIV RNA <1000 copies/ml). Among 54 samples with viral load ≥1000 copies/ml, 40 were successfully genotyped, and 11 were found with detectable HIV drug resistance mutations. Of these, the proportions of drug resistance to NNRTIs, NRTIs and PIs were 100%, 81.8% and 0%, respectively. Injecting drug use (AOR = 0.40, 95% CI: 0.19,0.84; P = 0.0154), CD4 count at baseline ≥350 cells/mm(3) (AOR = 0.32, 95% CI: 0.14,0.72; P = 0.0056), and missed doses in the past month (AOR = 0.30, 95% CI: 0.15,0.60; P = 0.0006) were significantly negatively associated with HIV RNA <1000 copies/ml. Our study demonstrates effective virological and immunological outcomes at 12 months among these who initiated first-line ART treatment. However, patients infected through drug injection, who missed doses, or with higher CD4 count at baseline are at increased risk for poor virological response.PLoS ONE 02/2014; 9(2):e88305. · 3.53 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Researchers often believe that a treatment's effect on a response may be heterogeneous with respect to certain baseline covariates. This is an important premise of personalized medicine. Several methods for estimating heterogeneous treatment effects have been proposed. However, little attention has been given to the problem of choosing between estimators of treatment effects. Models that best estimate the regression function may not be best for estimating the effect of a treatment; therefore, there is a need for model selection methods that are targeted to treatment effect estimation. We demonstrate an application of the focused information criterion in this setting and develop a treatment effect cross-validation aimed at minimizing treatment effect estimation errors. Theoretically, treatment effect cross-validation has a model selection consistency property when the data splitting ratio is properly chosen. Practically, treatment effect cross-validation has the flexibility to compare different types of models. We illustrate the methods by using simulation studies and data from a clinical trial comparing treatments of patients with human immunodeficiency virus.Journal Of The Royal Statistical Society 11/2013;
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to describe the rates and predictors of discontinuing first-line antiretroviral therapy in the different eras of treatment over a nearly 20 year period initiated in British Columbia between 1992 and 2010. All naive adults who started antiretroviral therapy (first-line antiretroviral therapy) at any hospital or clinic in British Columbia (Canada) in 1992-2010 were included in this population-based retrospective cohort study. We were primarily interested in whether the era of treatment (1992-95, 1996-2000, 2001-05 and 2006-10) was associated with discontinuation (stopping or switching of initial treatment) within 3 years of starting therapy. Weibull survival analysis was used to model the era of treatment and its association with time to discontinuation. The study included 7901 patients. Overall, the probability of discontinuing at 12, 24 and 36 months of treatment was 52%, 68% and 76%, respectively. In the adjusted model, variables associated with discontinuing were earlier treatment era, younger age, low adherence and lower baseline CD4 count. Regarding the 2006-10 period, the probability of discontinuing at 12, 24 and 36 months was 36%, 47% and 53%, respectively. In the adjusted model, the variables associated with discontinuation were younger age, female gender, AIDS-defining illnesses at baseline, low adherence and a protease inhibitor (PI)-based regimen. Discontinuation rates of first-line therapy have decreased over time, but are still quite high even for the latest drug combinations. In the most recent era, younger women on a PI regimen and those not achieving optimal adherence had the highest risk of discontinuing first-line antiretroviral therapy.Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 04/2014; · 5.34 Impact Factor