Cross contamination of turkey carcasses by Salmonella species during defeathering.

The Great Plains Institute of Food Safety, Department of Veterinary and Microbiological Sciences, North Dakota State University, Fargo 58105, USA.
Poultry Science (Impact Factor: 1.52). 02/2007; 86(1):162-7. DOI: 10.1093/ps/86.1.162
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Salmonella present on the feathers of live birds could be a source of contamination to carcass skin during defeathering. In this study, the possibility of transfer of Salmonella from the feathers of live turkeys to carcass tissue during the defeathering process at a commercial turkey processing plant was investigated. The contribution of scald water and the fingers of the picker machines to cross contamination were also examined. Over 4 visits, swab samples were collected from 174 randomly selected tagged birds before and after defeathering. Two swab samples from the fingers of the picker machines and a sample of scald water were also collected during each visit. Detection of Salmonella was carried out following standard cultural and identification methods. The DNA fingerprints obtained from pulsed field gel electrophoresis of Salmonella serotypes isolated before and after defeathering, from scald water, and from the fingers of the picker machines were compared to trace cross contamination routes. Salmonella prevalence was similar before and after defeathering during visits 2 and 3 and significantly increased after defeathering during visits 1 and 4. Over the 4 visits, all Salmonella subtypes obtained after defeathering were also isolated before defeathering. The results of this study suggest that Salmonella was transferred from the feathers to carcass skin during each visit. On each visit, the Salmonella subtypes isolated from the fingers of the picker machines were similar to subtypes isolated before and after defeathering, indicating that the fingers facilitate carcass cross contamination during defeathering. Salmonella isolated from scald water during visit 4 was related to isolates obtained before and after defeathering, suggesting that scald water is also a vehicle for cross contamination during defeathering. By using molecular subtyping, this study demonstrated the relationship between Salmonella present on the feathers of live turkeys and carcass skin after defeathering, suggesting that decontamination procedures applied to the external surfaces of live turkeys could reduce Salmonella cross contamination during defeathering.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to find out the serotype distribution of 169 Salmonella colonies recovered from 112 Salmonella positive ground turkey (115 colonies) and 52 turkey meat parts (54 colonies). Out of 15 Salmonella serotypes: S. Corvallis, S. Kentucky, S. Bredeney, S. Virchow, S. Saintpaul and S. Agona were identified as the predominant serovars at the rates of 27%, 13%, 12%, 12%, 11%, and 10%, respectively. Other serotypes were below 6% of the total isolates. All S. Kentucky and S. Virchow and most of the S. Corvallis (39/46) and S. Heidelberg (9/9) serotypes were recovered from ground turkey. The results indicate that turkey ground meat and meat parts were contaminated with quite distinct Salmonella serotypes. This is the first study reporting Salmonella serotype distribution in turkey meat and S. Corvallis as predominant serotype in poultry meat in Turkey.
    BioMed research international. 01/2013; 2013:281591.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: The cleaning process in poultry slaughterhouses consists basically on the use of hot water, detergents and disinfectants. The disinfection, which is the last stage of the cleaning process, seeks to reduce the number of total microor-ganisms and eliminating pathogen, so that levels are kept safe for good quality products. Pathogenic microorganisms such as Salmonella and Listeria are of utmost importance since they may cause foodborne diseases and consequently result in public health and economic losses in the domestic and in exporting markets. Materials, Methods & Results: This study was conducted in the cutting room of a poultry slaughterhouse with capacity to process 20.000 animals per hour in the Southern state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Samples were collected during preoperational cleaning: before the surfaces were washed (without the removal of residues); after washing with hot water at 45 to 50°C and 22.5 bar pressure; and after washing with 2% sodium hydroxide detergent. Three disinfectants were tested: 0.5% peracetic acid, 2% quaternary ammonium and 1% biguanide, all of them for 15 min, followed by rinsing with hot water. Evaluations were made in three processing lines for cutting chicken legs at the same time and on fully randomized sites of three surfaces: stainless steel tables, polyurethane conveyors, and polyethylene cutting boards. The pre-enrichment method used 100 mL of 1% peptone water added to a bag with the sponge. After 1 min in a stomacher blender, an aliquot of 50 mL was transferred to a sterilized container and incubated at 30 ± 1°C for 18-24 h to isolate Listeria while the remaining 100 mL was incubated at 36 ± 1°C for 16-20 h for the isolation of Salmonella. Selective enrichment for Salmonella was conducted in Rappaport-Vassiliadis medium and selenite cystine broth, for 24 to 30 h at 41 ± 0.5°C in a water bath. Isolation was conducted in chromogenic agar for Salmonella and brilliant-green phenol-red lactose sucrose agar, incubated at 36 ± 1°C for 18-24 h. Colonies compatible with Salmonella were confi rmed using biochemical and serological tests. For Listeria isolation, selective enrichment was performed in Fraser broth for 18-24 h at 30 ± 1°C, Listeria agar and Modifi ed Oxford -MOX agar, incubated at 35 ± 2°C for 24-48 h. Colonies compatible with Listeria spp. were confi rmed for L. monocytogenes and other species by using biochemical tests. Results were described as presence or absence of Salmonella or Listeria. Discussion: Salmonella was not found on the surfaces studied, which may be due to the fact that the batch of slaughtered broilers was free of this microorganism or that good production practices and hazard analysis and critical control points procedures in this industry were adequately applied. Listeria welshmeri was isolated from the polyurethane conveyor and Listeria monocytogenes from the stainless steel table, both when the surfaces had food residues, before washing. The isolation of different Listeria species on the same surface (polyurethane conveyor) may be explained by the fact that four different sites were examined for sample collection, and that there might have been different species simultaneously contaminating the surfaces on random sites. After washing with hot water, Listeria monocytogenes was still isolated from the polyurethane conveyor, but it was not isolated after disinfection with 2% quaternary ammonium. After this stage of disinfection, Listeria was no longer isolated, which indicates that the use of a detergent and posterior use of quaternary ammonium was effi cacious in removing the microorganisms from this surface. Keywords: poultry slaughterhouse, surfaces, disinfection process, Salmonella, Listeria
    Acta Scientiae Veterinariae. 01/2013; 41:1164.
  • Source

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 21, 2014