Human papillomavirus and pterygium. Is the virus a risk factor?

Eye Pathology Institute, University of Copenhagen, Frederik V's Vej 11, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.
British Journal of Ophthalmology (Impact Factor: 2.81). 09/2007; 91(8):1016-8. DOI: 10.1136/bjo.2006.108829
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Pterygium is a disease of unknown origin and pathogenesis that might be vision threatening. It is characterised by a wing-like conjunctival overgrowth of the cornea. Several studies have investigated human papillomavirus (HPV) as a risk factor for the development of pterygia, but the results are inconclusive.
To investigate a large sample of pterygia for the presence of HPV in order to clarify the putative association between pterygia and HPV.
100 specimens of pterygium from Danish patients and 20 normal conjunctival biopsy specimens were investigated for the presence of HPV with PCR technique using beta-globin primers to access the quality of the extracted DNA and the HPV primers MY09/11 and GP5+/6+. HPV-positive specimens underwent subsequent HPV typing with type-specific HPV primers and further investigation with DNA in situ hybridisation (ISH).
90 of 100 investigated pterygia proved suitable for HPV analysis by PCR. As beta-globin could not be amplified, 10 specimens were excluded from the study. 4 of 90 pterygia harboured HPV. HPV type 6 was identified in all four HPV-positive pterygia. The 20 normal conjunctival biopsy specimens were beta-globin positive and HPV negative. All four pterygia that were HPV type 6 positive were DNA ISH negative.
The low presence of HPV DNA in pterygia does not support the hypothesis that HPV is involved in the development of pterygia in Denmark.

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    ABSTRACT: To elucidate the putative role of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in pterygium and conjunctival papilloma. Hybrid capture II (HC-II) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays were performed to detect HPV in pterygium (42 samples obtained from 40 patients) and conjunctival papilloma (8 samples from 6 patients). The amount of HPV DNA was evaluated by measurement of relative light units (RLUs) on a luminometer. All papilloma samples were positive for HPV DNA by PCR and HC-II. The RLU values for specimens of recurrent and re-recurrent papilloma were markedly higher than those for specimens of primary lesions. HPV was detected by PCR in 2 of 42 (4.8%) beta-globin-positive pterygium specimens, whereas HC-II showed that HPV was negative in all pterygium samples. Our results support the hypothesis that HPV DNA is associated with the pathogenesis of conjunctival papilloma, but not pterygium. RLU measurement by HC-II may serve as a marker for evaluating the activity of HPV in conjunctival tumours.
    Eye (London, England) 07/2008; 22(11):1442-5. DOI:10.1038/eye.2008.176
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    ABSTRACT: Our recent report indicated that tumor suppressor gene (p53) mutations and protein aberrant expression were detected in pterygium. Inactivation of p53 by Human papillomavirus (HPV) 16/18 E6 plays a crucial role in cervical tumorigenesis. In this study, we further speculate that p53 inactivation may be linked with HPV infection in pterygium pathogenesis. To investigate the involvement of HPV 16/18 E6 in p53 inactivation in pterygium, the association between HPV 16 or HPV 18 infection, the HPV E6 oncoprotein, and p53 protein expression was analyzed in this study. HPV 16/18 infection was detected by nested-polymerase chain reaction (nested-PCR), the p53 mutation was detected by direct sequencing, and the p53 and the HPV 16/18 E6 proteins were studied using immunohistochemistry on 129 pterygial specimens and 20 normal conjunctivas. The HPV 16/18 was detected in 24% of the pterygium tissues (31 of 129) but not in the normal conjunctiva, and the HPV16/18 E6 oncoprotein was detected in 48.3% of HPV 16/18 DNA-positive pterygium tissues (15 of 31). In addition, p53 protein negative expression in pterygium was correlated with HPV16/18 E6 oncoprotein expression but not with a p53 mutation. HPV 16/18 E6 contributes to HPV-mediated pterygium pathogenesis as it is partly involved in p53 inactivation and is expressed in HPV DNA-positive pterygium.
    Molecular vision 02/2009; 15:1092-7.
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to assess the occurrence of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in pterygium. The study involved 89 patients undergoing surgical procedures at the Department of Ophthalmology, Medical University of Lublin, Poland. Group 1 included 58 patients with clinically diagnosed pterygium. Group 2 consisted of 31 individuals with normal conjunctiva. The material was collected during elective surgical procedures. The presence of HPV genome was determined using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Once the presence of HPV DNA was confirmed, 28 HPV genotypes were determined using reverse hybridization. The determinations confirmed the presence of HPV DNA in pterygium. In the material collected from 58 cases of pterygium (group 1), HPV DNA was identified in 16 patients (27.6%). In the material from 31 diagnostic specimens of normal conjunctiva (group 2), the presence of HPV was demonstrated in three cases (9.7%). A statistically significant difference was found in the presence of HPV DNA between the patients from groups 1 and 2 (p = 0.041). HPV type 16 was most common and was demonstrated in 56% of HPV-positive cases of pterygium. HPV 16 and HPV 6 co-infections were found in 19% of cases, while HPV 18 and HPV 6 co-infections were observed in 13%. In group 2, all three patients with HPV showed HPV 18. It seems that HPV is not necessary to induce pterygium; however, it might play a synergistic role in the multi-stage process of its development.
    Acta ophthalmologica 04/2009; 87(8):890-5. DOI:10.1111/j.1755-3768.2008.01372.x

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