The karyopherin Kap95 regulates nuclear pore complex assembly into intact nuclear envelopes in vivo.
ABSTRACT Nuclear pore complex (NPC) assembly in interphase cells requires that new NPCs insert into an intact nuclear envelope (NE). Our previous work identified the Ran GTPase as an essential component in this process. We proposed that Ran is required for targeting assembly factors to the cytoplasmic NE face via a novel, vesicular intermediate. Although the molecular target was not identified, Ran is known to function by modulating protein interactions for karyopherin (Kap) beta family members. Here we characterize loss-of-function Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants in KAP95 with blocks in NPC assembly. Similar to defects in Ran cycle mutants, nuclear pore proteins are no longer localized properly to the NE in kap95 mutants. Also like Ran cycle mutants, the kap95-E126K mutant displayed enhanced lethality with nic96 and nup170 mutants. Thus, Kap95 and Ran are likely functioning at the same stage in assembly. However, although Ran cycle mutants accumulate small cytoplasmic vesicles, cells depleted of Kap95 accumulated long stretches of cytoplasmic membranes and had highly distorted NEs. We conclude that Kap95 serves as a key regulator of NPC assembly into intact NEs. Furthermore, both Kap95 and Ran may provide spatial cues necessary for targeting of vesicular intermediates in de novo NPC assembly.
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ABSTRACT: We report a case of amelanotic melanoma that was clinically and dermoscopically featureless; it was repeatedly missed during examination at a pigmented lesion clinic. Dermoscopy evidenced a peculiar vascular pattern, and only the adoption of a specific diagnostic algorithm including the atypical vascular pattern among the major diagnostic criteria would have helped the observer make the correct diagnosis. The risk of false-negative diagnosis by both clinical examination and dermoscopy during melanoma screening as well as the possible role of dermoscopy in the diagnosis of amelanotic melanoma are discussed.Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 07/2002; 46(6):957-9. · 3.99 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Here, we report the first evidence that the Ran GTPase cycle is required for nuclear pore complex (NPC) assembly. Using a genetic approach, factors required for NPC assembly were identified in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Four mutant complementation groups were characterized that correspond to respective mutations in genes encoding Ran (gsp1), and essential Ran regulatory factors Ran GTPase-activating protein (rna1), Ran guanine nucleotide exchange factor (prp20), and the RanGDP import factor (ntf2). All the mutants showed temperature-dependent mislocalization of green fluorescence protein (GFP)-tagged nucleoporins (nups) and the pore-membrane protein Pom152. A decrease in GFP fluorescence associated with the nuclear envelope was observed along with an increase in the diffuse, cytoplasmic signal with GFP foci. The defects did not affect the stability of existing NPCs, and nup mislocalization was dependent on de novo protein synthesis and continued cell growth. Electron microscopy analysis revealed striking membrane perturbations and the accumulation of vesicles in arrested mutants. Using both biochemical fractionation and immunoelectron microscopy methods, these vesicles were shown to contain nups. We propose a model wherein a Ran-mediated vesicular fusion step is required for NPC assembly into intact nuclear envelopes.The Journal of Cell Biology 04/2003; 160(7):1041-53. · 10.26 Impact Factor
Article: The synthesis of inositol hexakisphosphate. Characterization of human inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate 2-kinase.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The enzyme(s) responsible for the production of inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP(6)) in vertebrate cells are unknown. In fungal cells, a 2-kinase designated Ipk1 is responsible for synthesis of InsP(6) by phosphorylation of inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate (InsP(5)). Based on limited conserved sequence motifs among five Ipk1 proteins from different fungal species, we have identified a human genomic DNA sequence on chromosome 9 that encodes human inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate 2-kinase (InsP(5) 2-kinase). Recombinant human enzyme was produced in Sf21 cells, purified, and shown to catalyze the synthesis of InsP(6) or phytic acid in vitro. The recombinant protein converted 31 nmol of InsP(5) to InsP(6)/min/mg of protein (V(max)). The Michaelis-Menten constant for InsP(5) was 0.4 microM and for ATP was 21 microM. Saccharomyces cerevisiae lacking IPK1 do not produce InsP(6) and show lethality in combination with a gle1 mutant allele. Here we show that expression of the human InsP(5) 2-kinase in a yeast ipk1 null strain restored the synthesis of InsP(6) and rescued the gle1-2 ipk1-4 lethal phenotype. Northern analysis on human tissues showed expression of the human InsP(5) 2-kinase mRNA predominantly in brain, heart, placenta, and testis. The isolation of the gene responsible for InsP(6) synthesis in mammalian cells will allow for further studies of the InsP(6) signaling functions.Journal of Biological Chemistry 09/2002; 277(35):31857-62. · 4.77 Impact Factor