Effects of airborne-particle abrasion, sodium hydroxide anodization, and electrical discharge machining on porcelain adherence to cast commercially pure titanium.
ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to determine the effect of airborne-particle abrasion (APA), sodium hydroxide anodization (SHA), and electrical discharge machining (EDM) on cast titanium surfaces and titanium-porcelain adhesion. Ninety titanium specimens were cast with pure titanium and the alpha-case layer was removed. Specimens were randomly divided into three groups. Ten specimens from each group were subjected to APA. SHA was applied to the second subgroups, and the remaining specimens were subjected to the EDM. For the control group, 10 specimens were cast using NiCr alloy and subjected to only APA. Surfaces were examined by using scanning electron microscope and a surface profilometer. Three titanium porcelains were fused on the titanium surfaces, whereas NiCr specimens were covered with conventional porcelain. Titanium-porcelain adhesion was characterized by a 3-point bending test. Statistical analysis showed that the porcelain-metal bond strength of the control group was higher than that of the titanium-porcelain system (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences between the bond strengths of titanium groups (p 0.05), except the bond strengths of Noritake Super Porcelain TI-22 groups on which APA and SHA were applied (p < 0.05). SHA and EDM as surface treatment did not improve titanium-porcelain adhesion when compared to APA.
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ABSTRACT: The objective of this experimental study is to determine electrical discharge machining (EDM) parameters that offer the best adhesion at the interface of a machined titanium–porcelain composite. First of all, with Taguchi method, machining parameters that will be effective in the bonding strength as well as their interactions on each other were determined in the test. Then, multiple level experiments were conducted to determine how the effective parameters varied over a wide area. Slopes of the curves obtained in these tests were studied, and then, final tests were conducted to obtain the best bonding strength possible. In this way, machining parameters that would offer the highest bonding strength of the titanium–porcelain matrix in a stepwise adjustable EDM machine were obtained. By taking into consideration the steps on the EDM machine where the tests were conducted, it is seen that, when a full factorial experiment is undertaken, 5 power × 2 polarity × 2 type of dielectric × 2 sandblasting or non-sandblasting × 2 kind of electrode × 10 pulse-on time, it necessitates 800 different tests to be executed, but, with the applied method, 16 + 18 + 3 yields 37 different tests where the results that include all possible alternatives were obtained. As a result, EDM machining parameters that offer the highest adhesion and are relatively higher, 31.5N/mm2, than the acceptable minimum value of 25N/mm2 were specified.International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology 45(1):55-61. · 1.78 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effect of airborne-particle abrasion and mechanico-thermal cycling on the flexural strength of a ceramic fused to cobalt-chromium alloy or gold alloy. Metallic bars (n = 120) were made (25 mm × 3 mm × 0.5 mm): 60 with gold alloy and 60 with Co-Cr. At the central area of the bars (8 mm × 3 mm), a layer of opaque ceramic and then two layers of glass ceramic (Vita VM13, Vita Zahnfabrick) were fired onto it (thickness: 1 mm). Ten specimens from each alloy group were randomly allocated to a surface treatment [(tungsten bur or air-particle abrasion (APA) with Al(2) O(3) at 10 mm or 20 mm away)] and mechanico-thermal cycling (no cycling or mechanically loaded 20,000 cycles; 10 N distilled water at 37°C and then thermocycled 3000 cycles; 5°C to 55°C, dwell time 30 seconds) combination. Those specimens that did not undergo mechanico-thermal cycling were stored in water (37°C) for 24 hours. Bond strength was measured using a three-point bend test, according to ISO 9693. After the flexural strength test, failure types were noted. The data were analyzed using three factor-ANOVA and Tukey's test (α= 0.05). There were no significant differences between the flexural bond strength of gold and Co-Cr groups (42.64 ± 8.25 and 43.39 ± 10.89 MPa, respectively). APA 10 and 20 mm away surface treatment (45.86 ± 9.31 and 46.38 ± 8.89 MPa, respectively) had similar mean flexural strength values, and both had significantly higher bond strength than tungsten bur treatment (36.81 ± 7.60 MPa). Mechanico-thermal cycling decreased the mean flexural strength values significantly for all six alloy-surface treatment combinations tested when compared to the control groups. The failure type was adhesive in the metal/ceramic interface for specimens surface treated only with the tungsten bur, and mixed for specimens surface treated with APA 10 and 20 mm. Considering the levels adopted in this study, the alloy did not affect the bond strength; APA with Al(2) O(3) at 10 and 20 mm improved the flexural bond strength between ceramics and alloys used, and the mechanico-thermal cycling of metal-ceramic specimens resulted in a decrease of bond strength.Journal of Prosthodontics 10/2011; 20(7):553-60. · 0.68 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to comparatively assess the surface roughness parameters, the hardness, and the elemental and molecular alterations induced on CPTi surfaces after conventional finishing and finishing with electro discharge machining (EDM). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A completed cast model of an arch that received four implants was used for the preparation of two grade II CPTi castings. One framework was conventionally finished (CF), whereas the other was subjected to EDM finishing. The surface morphology was imaged employing SEM. 3D surface parameters (S a, S q, S z, S ds, S dr, and S ci) were calculated by optical profilometry. The elemental composition of the treated surfaces was determined by energy dispersive X-ray analysis, whereas the elemental and chemical states of the outmost layer were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectrometry. Surface hardness was also tested with a Knoop indenter. The results of surface roughness parameters, elemental analysis, and hardness were compared using unpaired t test (a = 0.05). RESULTS: The EDM group demonstrated a rougher surface, with a significant uptake of C and Cu. The CF surface mainly consisted of TiO2. On EDM surface though, Ti was probed in different chemicals states (TiO2, Ti2O3, TiC and metallic Ti) and Cu was traced as Cu2O and CuO. Hardness after EDM was almost ten times higher than CF. CONCLUSIONS: EDM significantly affected surface roughness, chemical state, and hardness properties of grade II CPTi castings in comparison with CF. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The morphological and elemental alterations of EDM-treated CPTi surfaces may strongly contribute to the reduced corrosion resistance documented for this procedure. The degradation of electrochemical properties may have further biological implications through ionic release in the oral environment.Clinical Oral Investigations 03/2013; · 2.20 Impact Factor