Cognitive assessment of children at age 2(1/2) years after maternal fish oil supplementation in pregnancy: a randomised controlled trial.
ABSTRACT To assess the effects of antenatal omega 3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LC PUFA) on cognitive development in a cohort of children whose mothers received high-dose fish oil in pregnancy.
A double-blind randomised placebo-controlled trial.
Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
98 pregnant women received the supplementation from 20 weeks' gestation until delivery. Their infants (n = 72) were assessed at age 2(1/2) years.
Fish oil (2.2 g docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and 1.1 g eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)/day) or olive oil from 20 weeks' gestation until delivery.
Effects on infant growth and developmental quotients (Griffiths Mental Development Scales), receptive language (Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test) and behaviour (Child Behaviour Checklist).
Children in the fish oil-supplemented group (n = 33) attained a significantly higher score for eye and hand coordination (mean ((SD) score 114 (10.2)) than those in the placebo group (n = 39, mean score 108 (SD 11.3); p = 0.021, adjusted p = 0.008). Eye and hand coordination scores correlated with n-3 PUFA levels in cord blood erythrocytes (EPA: r = 0.320, p = 0.007; DHA: r = 0.308, p = 0.009) and inversely correlated with n-6 PUFA (arachidonic acid 20:4n-6: r = -0.331, p = 0.005). Growth measurements in the two groups were similar at age 2(1/2) years.
Maternal fish oil supplementation during pregnancy is safe for the fetus and infant, and may have potentially beneficial effects on the child's eye and hand coordination. Further studies are needed to determine the significance of this finding.
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ABSTRACT: Women of child-bearing age should achieve and maintain good nutritional status prior to conception to help minimize health risks to both mothers and infants. Many women may not be aware of the importance of preconception nutrition and supplementation or have access to nutrition information. Health care providers should be knowledgeable about preconception/pregnancy-related nutrition and take the initiative to discuss this information during preconception counseling. Women of reproductive age should be counseled to consume a well-balanced diet including fruits and vegetables, iron and calcium-rich foods, and protein-containing foods as well as 400 microg of folic acid daily. More research is critically needed on the efficacy and safety of dietary supplements and the role of obesity in birth outcomes. Preconception counseling is the perfect opportunity for the health care provider to discuss a healthy eating guideline, dietary supplement intake, and maintaining a healthy weight status.American journal of obstetrics and gynecology 01/2009; 199(6 Suppl 2):S345-56. · 3.28 Impact Factor
Article: Infant formula supplementation with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids has no effect on Bayley developmental scores at 18 months of age--IPD meta-analysis of 4 large clinical trials.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To find out whether supplementation of formula milk by long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) affects neurodevelopment at 18 months of age in term or preterm infants by an individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis. Data of 870 children from 4 large randomised clinical trials for formula milk with and without LCPUFAs allowed for assessing the effect of LCPUFA with adjustment for potential confounders and extensive subgroup analysis on prematurity, LCPUFA source, and dosage. Any additional clinical trials examining the effect of LCPUFA supplementation on Bayley Scales of Infant Development at 18 months were regarded as relevant. Two relevant studies were identified by MEDLINE, but were not available to us. An IPD meta-analysis was performed with subgroup analyses by preterm delivery, very low birth weight (<1500 g), trials with higher amounts of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA), and specific sources of LCPUFA. The sample size of 870 children was sufficient to detect clinically relevant differences in Bayley Scales even in subgroups. There were no significant differences in mental or psychomotor developmental indexes between LCPUFA-supplemented and control groups for all children or in subgroups. This was confirmed with adjustment for the possible confounders: sex, gestational age, birth weight, maternal age, and maternal smoking. The adjusted mean differences in mental developmental index and psychomotor developmental index for all of the children were -0.8 (95% confidence interval -2.8 to 1.2) and -1.0 (-2.7 to 0.7), respectively. These data based on considerable sample size provide substantial evidence that LCPUFA supplementation of infant formula does not have a clinically meaningful effect on the neurodevelopment as assessed by Bayley scores at 18 months. Inclusion of all relevant data should not have led to differing conclusions except, possibly, for very-low-birth-weight infants.Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition 10/2009; 50(1):79-84. · 2.18 Impact Factor
Article: Balancing the benefits of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and the risks of methylmercury exposure from fish consumption.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Fish and shellfish are widely available foods that provide important nutrients, particularly n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), to many populations globally. These nutrients, especially docosahexaenoic acid, confer benefits to brain and visual system development in infants and reduce risks of certain forms of heart disease in adults. However, fish and shellfish can also be a major source of methylmercury (MeHg), a known neurotoxicant that is particularly harmful to fetal brain development. This review documents the latest knowledge on the risks and benefits of seafood consumption for perinatal development of infants. It is possible to choose fish species that are both high in n-3 PUFAs and low in MeHg. A framework for providing dietary advice for women of childbearing age on how to maximize the dietary intake of n-3 PUFAs while minimizing MeHg exposures is suggested.Nutrition Reviews 09/2011; 69(9):493-508. · 4.47 Impact Factor