Article

Cognitive assessment of children at age 2(1/2) years after maternal fish oil supplementation in pregnancy: a randomised controlled trial.

School of Paediatrics and Child Health, University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
Archives of Disease in Childhood - Fetal and Neonatal Edition (Impact Factor: 3.86). 02/2008; 93(1):F45-50. DOI: 10.1136/adc.2006.099085
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To assess the effects of antenatal omega 3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LC PUFA) on cognitive development in a cohort of children whose mothers received high-dose fish oil in pregnancy.
A double-blind randomised placebo-controlled trial.
Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
98 pregnant women received the supplementation from 20 weeks' gestation until delivery. Their infants (n = 72) were assessed at age 2(1/2) years.
Fish oil (2.2 g docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and 1.1 g eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)/day) or olive oil from 20 weeks' gestation until delivery.
Effects on infant growth and developmental quotients (Griffiths Mental Development Scales), receptive language (Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test) and behaviour (Child Behaviour Checklist).
Children in the fish oil-supplemented group (n = 33) attained a significantly higher score for eye and hand coordination (mean ((SD) score 114 (10.2)) than those in the placebo group (n = 39, mean score 108 (SD 11.3); p = 0.021, adjusted p = 0.008). Eye and hand coordination scores correlated with n-3 PUFA levels in cord blood erythrocytes (EPA: r = 0.320, p = 0.007; DHA: r = 0.308, p = 0.009) and inversely correlated with n-6 PUFA (arachidonic acid 20:4n-6: r = -0.331, p = 0.005). Growth measurements in the two groups were similar at age 2(1/2) years.
Maternal fish oil supplementation during pregnancy is safe for the fetus and infant, and may have potentially beneficial effects on the child's eye and hand coordination. Further studies are needed to determine the significance of this finding.

4 Bookmarks
 · 
142 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Maternal intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) is critical during perinatal development of the brain. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is the most abundant n-3 PUFA in the brain and influences neuronal membrane function and neuroprotection. The present study aims to assess the effect of dietary n-3 PUFA availability during the gestational and postnatal period on cognition, brain metabolism and neurohistology in C57BL/6J mice. Female wild-type C57BL/6J mice at day 0 of gestation were randomly assigned to either an n-3 PUFA deficient diet (0.05% of total fatty acids) or an n-3 PUFA adequate diet (3.83% of total fatty acids) containing preformed DHA and its precursor α-linolenic acid. Male offspring remained on diet and performed cognitive tests during puberty and adulthood. In adulthood, animals underwent 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy to assess brain energy metabolites. Thereafter, biochemical and immunohistochemical analyses were performed assessing inflammation, neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity. Compared to the n-3 PUFA deficient group, pubertal n-3 PUFA adequate fed mice demonstrated increased motor coordination. Adult n-3 PUFA adequate fed mice exhibited increased exploratory behavior, sensorimotor integration and spatial memory, while neurogenesis in the hippocampus was decreased. Selected brain regions of n-3 PUFA adequate fed mice contained significantly lower levels of arachidonic acid and higher levels of DHA and dihomo-γ-linolenic acid. Our data suggest that dietary n-3 PUFA can modify neural maturation and enhance brain functioning in healthy C57BL/6J mice. This indicates that availability of n-3 PUFA in infant diet during early development may have a significant impact on brain development.
    The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 10/2014; · 4.59 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Chilean diets are characterized by a low supply of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), which are critical nutrients during pregnancy and lactation, because of their role in brain and visual development. DHA is the most relevant n-3 PUFA in this period. We evaluated the dietary n-3 PUFA intake and erythrocyte phospholipids n-3 PUFA in Chilean pregnant women. Eighty healthy pregnant women (20-36 years old) in the 3rd-6th month of pregnancy were included in the study. Dietary assessment was done applying a food frequency questionnaire, and data were analyzed through the Food Processor SQL® software. Fatty acids of erythrocyte phospholipids were assessed by gas-liquid chromatography. Diet composition was high in saturated fat, low in mono- and PUFA, high in n-6 PUFA (linoleic acid) and low in n-3 PUFA (alpha-linolenic acid and DHA), with imbalance in the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio. Similar results were observed for fatty acids from erythrocyte phospholipids. The sample of Chilean pregnant women showed high consumption of saturated fat and low consumption of n-3 PUFA, which is reflected in the low DHA content of erythrocyte phospholipids. Imbalance between n-6/n-3 PUFA could negatively affect fetal development. New strategies are necessary to improve n-3 PUFA intake throughout pregnancy and breast feeding periods. Furthermore, it is necessary to develop dietary interventions to improve the quality of consumed foods with particular emphasis on n-3 PUFA.
    Nutrients 11/2014; 6(11):4918-34. · 3.15 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: n-3 PUFAs play an important role in cognitive function. The objective was to investigate the effect of n-3 PUFA supplements on cognitive development, function, and decline throughout the life span. The study included randomized controlled trials and provided ≥3 mo of treatment. Potential studies were independently screened in duplicate, and study characteristics and outcomes were extracted. A meta-analysis was performed by using fixed- or random-effects models. The results are presented as standardized mean differences (SMDs) with 95% CIs. Of the 3692 citations retrieved, 34 studies of a total of 12,999 participants (1031 infants, 1517 children, 3657 adults, and 6794 elderly individuals) were included. Compared with placebo, n-3 PUFA supplements significantly improved cognitive development in infants, including the Mental Development Index (SMD: 0.33; 95% CI: 0.15, 0.52), the Psychomotor Development Index (0.27; 95% CI: 0.09, 0.45), and language (0.27; 95% CI: 0.13, 0.42), motor (0.29; 95% CI: 0.14, 0.43), and cognitive (0.31; 95% CI: 0.16, 0.45) abilities. However, n-3 PUFAs did not promote cognitive function in terms of composite memory, executive function, and processing speed domains in children, adults, or the elderly, except for the attention domain. No association was found between n-3 PUFA intake and improvements in cognitive performance in terms of recognition, immediate and delayed word recall, digit span backward and forward tests, rapid visual information processing, verbal fluency, and simple and choice reaction times. In addition, n-3 PUFA supplements were not associated with improvements in cognitive decline or with any effects on Alzheimer disease in elderly people. n-3 PUFA supplements may significantly improve cognitive development in infants but do not improve cognitive performance in children, adults, or the elderly. n-3 PUFA intake, especially that of DHA supplements, may benefit cognitive development during infancy. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.
    American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 12/2014; 100(6):1422-36. · 6.50 Impact Factor

Full-text

Download
21 Downloads
Available from
May 26, 2014