Markers of chronic alcohol use in hair: comparison of ethyl glucuronide and cocaethylene in cocaine users.
ABSTRACT Two direct ethanol metabolites, namely ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and cocaethylene (CE), in the hair of cocaine (COC) users were compared in this study. Hair samples (n=68) were submitted to the determination of EtG (by liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry) and of COC and metabolites, including CE (by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry). Quantitative and qualitative results were compared. No quantitative correlation was found between EtG and CE, as well as between EtG and the cocaethylene concentration divided by the concentration of COC and its metabolites (benzoylecgonine and ecgonine methylester, as COC equivalents). Nevertheless, many factors are supposed to affect the amount of the two substances incorporated in the hair matrix, such as the subject's habits in ethanol and COC use, genetic variability in the metabolism of both substances, and the different chemical and physical properties of EtG and CE. When establishing a cut-off of 4 pg/mg for EtG and of 200 pg/mg for CE, 47 samples tested positive for EtG and 41 samples tested positive for CE; 12 samples out of the 47 EtG-positives tested negative for CE (25%), whereas 6 samples out of the 41 CE-positives tested negative for EtG (15%). According to these data, EtG appears to be a more sensitive and specific marker of non-moderate alcohol users than CE.
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ABSTRACT: Contrary to the illegal use of any form of manufactured cocaine, chewing of coca leaves and drinking of coca tea are allowed and are very common and socially integrated in several South American countries. Because of this different legal state, an analytical method for discrimination between use of coca leaves and abuse of processed cocaine preparations is required. In this study, the applicability of hair analysis for this purpose was examined. Hair samples from 26 Argentinean coca chewers and 22 German cocaine users were analysed for cocaine (COC), norcocaine (NC), benzoylecgonine (BE), ecgonine methyl ester (EME), cocaethylene (CE), cinnamoylcocaine (CIN), tropacocaine (TRO), cuscohygrine (CUS) and hygrine (HYG) by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) in combination with triplequad mass spectrometry (MS/MS) and hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (QTOF-MS). The following concentrations (range, median, ng/mg) were determined in hair of the coca chewers: COC 0.085-75.5, 17.0; NC 0.03-1.15, 0.12; BE 0.046-35.5, 6.1; EME 0.014-6.0, 0.66; CE 0.00-13.8, 0.38; CIN 0.005-16.8, 0.79; TRO 0.02-0.16, 0.023; CUS 0.026-26.7, 0.31. In lack of a reference substance, only qualitative data were obtained for HYG, and two metabolites of CUS were detected which were not found in hair of the cocaine users. For interpretation, the concentrations of the metabolites and of the coca alkaloids in relation to cocaine were statistically compared between coca chewers and cocaine users. By analysis of variance (ANOVA) significant differences were found for all analytes (α = 0.000 to 0.030) with the exception of TRO (α = 0.218). The ratios CUS/COC, CIN/COC and EME/COC appeared to be the most suitable criteria for discrimination between both groups with the means and medians 5-fold to 10-fold higher for coca chewers and a low overlap of the ranges between both groups. The same was qualitatively found for HYG. However, these criteria cannot exclude cocaine use in addition to coca chewing. In this regard screening for typical cutting agents can be helpful and led to the detection of levamisole (21×), lidocaine (6×) and paracetamol (3×) in the 22 samples from German cocaine users, whereas no levamisole, lidocaine (3×) and paracetamol (1×) were found in hair from the Argentinean coca chewers. These criteria have to be confirmed for South American cocaine consumers including smokers of coca paste and may be different because of different composition of the drug and other use habits.Deutsche Zeitschrift für die Gesamte Gerichtliche Medizin 08/2014; · 2.60 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Introduction: Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) is a biomarker used for detection of alcohol consumption. Fingernail is a keratinous tissue capable of accumulating a number of biomarkers and metabolites of toxic agents. Therefore, nails are used especially for determination toxic exposure in forensic analyses. In this study, we aimed to demonstrate EtG in fingernail tissue and show its correlation with alcohol intake behavior. Materials and Methods: Michigan Alcohol Screening Test (MAST) was performed to the individuals participated in the study. Sixteen fingernails were obtained from each individual. Afterwards, EtG analysis was carried out in fingernail tissue using LC/MS/MS. Results: Michigan Alcohol Screening Test revealed that 4 participants showed non-hazardous drinking behavior and 8 cases were alcohol abusers, while 4 cases verbally stated they were abstainers. On the analyses, EtG was found between EtG level of <LOD and 90.52 ppb. EtG was observed as <LOD in fingernails of 4 participants who declared they were abstainers. A significant correlation was found between EtG levels measured in the fingernail samples and MAST outcomes on the statistical analyses (p<0.001; r=0.801). Conclusion: In this study, we demonstrated that fingernail tissue is a useful sample for determination of ethyl glucuronide by LC/MS-MS and can be used in detection of alcohol intake.Romanian Journal of Legal Medicine 03/2013; 2167(67):67-72. · 0.15 Impact Factor
Technical Report: Arrest-Related Death: Evidence Collection[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Covers: 1. Highly Perishable Evidence 2. Important Requests for ME (Medical Examiner) 3. Acute Medical Information 4. Chronic Medical Information 5. Circumstances Regarding Arrest 6. Interviews 7. Evidence Collection 8. Medical/Autopsy Data and Tissues 9. If the CEW Did Not Perform as Expected