Regular endurance exercise has favorable effects on cardiovascular risk factors. However, the impact of an exercise-induced change in aerobic fitness on blood lipids is often inconsistent. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of nine consecutive months of training on aerobic fitness and blood lipids in untrained adults. Thirty subjects 35-55 years of age (wt: 73.1 +/- 13.6 kg, height 171.1 +/- 9.0 cm, %body fat 24.6 +/- 6.3%, 14 males and 16 females) were randomly assigned to an exercise (EG) (N = 20) and control (CG) (N = 10) group. All subjects completed an incremental treadmill test, anthropometric measurements, and venous blood sample collection before and after the 9 months of exercise. Participants in the exercise group were supervised and adjusted for improvements in running performance, whereas no change was administered for the control group. One-way and multivariate ANOVA was conducted to determine significant differences in means for time and group in selected variables [body mass, % body fat, BMI; VO(2peak), km/h at 2.0 (v-LA2) and 4.0 (v-LA4) mmol l(-1) blood lactate (LA) concentration, km/h of the last load (v-max); TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, TG, Apo B, Apo A-1, and Lp (a)]. Correlation coefficients and multivariate regression analysis was used to determine the association between aerobic fitness and blood lipids. The exercise group improved significantly (P < 0.0001) in VO(2peak), v-LA2, v-LA4, v-max and exhibited a significant decrease in Apo B (P < 0.04) compared to the control group (NS). In 9 months, E achieved 24% increase in VO(2peak) and 18% reduction in Apo B, denoting the impact of cardiovascular fitness on cardiovascular risk.
"Although there are conflicting data regarding the effect of regular exercise on atherogenic lipoproteins, there is strong evidence for changes in apolipoprotein B, HDL, and triglycerides with regular exercise. Longitudinal studies have shown regular exercise to reduce apolipoprotein B up to 20%.117,120 As for HDL and triglycerides, one meta-analysis by Carroll and Dudfield showed that long-term, moderate-intensity exercise training increases HDL and lowers triglycerides even in the absence of weight loss.100 "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Biological aging is typically associated with a progressive increase in body fat mass and a loss of lean body mass. Owing to the metabolic consequences of reduced muscle mass, it is understood that normal aging and/or decreased physical activity may lead to a higher prevalence of metabolic disorders. Lifestyle modification, specifically changes in diet, physical activity, and exercise, is considered the cornerstone of obesity management. However, for most overweight people it is difficult to lose weight permanently through diet or exercise. Thus, prevention of weight gain is thought to be more effective than weight loss in reducing obesity rates. A key question is whether physical activity can extenuate age-related weight gain and promote metabolic health in adults. Current guidelines suggest that adults should accumulate about 60 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity daily to prevent unhealthy weight gain. Because evidence suggests that resistance training may promote a negative energy balance and may change body fat distribution, it is possible that an increase in muscle mass after resistance training may be a key mediator leading to better metabolic control.
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 11/2012; 1281(1). DOI:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2012.06785.x · 4.38 Impact Factor
"This finding follows the same trend as that of a recent meta-analysis of studies that utilized 2–12 months of exercise in subjects with type 2 diabetes and found no significant changes in high-density lipoprotein or low-density lipoprotein.10 A recent 9-month study in young healthy adults showed only an insignificant trend toward low-density lipoprotein reduction.11 "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of an 8-week aerobic exercise program on physiological parameters and quality of life in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Patients attending a diabetes clinic participated in this randomized control trial. They were randomly assigned to an intervention or control group by ballot. The intervention group, in addition to regular conventional treatment, received individually prescribed aerobic exercise for 30 minutes, at 50%-75% of maximum heart rate three times weekly. Main outcome measures included fasting blood sugar, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)), high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, and a World Health Organization quality of life questionnaire (WHOQoL-BREF). Data analysis involved paired and unpaired t-tests and mixed-design two-way analysis of variance.
Eighteen patients with type 2 diabetes and of mean age 46.22 ± 9.79 years participated in the study. Mean duration since onset of diabetes in the intervention and control groups was 4.44 ± 3.33 years and 3.92 ± 2.66 years, respectively. Both groups were similar for duration since onset, baseline physiological parameters, and quality of life. Within-group comparison did not show any significant differences (P > 0.05) for HbA(1c), fasting blood sugar, low-density lipoprotein, or high-density lipoprotein. The intervention group improved significantly (P < 0.05) in their postexercise quality of life compared with baseline. Between-group comparison did not show any significant differences in physiological parameters or quality of life.
Patients with type 2 diabetes improved in fasting blood sugar, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein, and quality of life following 8 weeks of aerobic exercise training. These perceived improvements were not reflected by statistically significant differences in between-group comparison for any parameters.
International Journal of General Medicine 10/2011; 4:723-7. DOI:10.2147/IJGM.S16717
"For instance, it increases cardiorespiratory fitness, which is inversely associated with poor cardiovascular outcomes and all-cause mortality in diabetic patients  . Furthermore, exercise training induces favorable changes in lipid profile and restricts both visceral and total body adiposity, the main resources of insulin resistance      . The multiple effects of physical activity patterns on emerging components of cardiovascular profile, so-called pleiotropic effects, provide an alternative explanation of their beneficial influence on cardiovascular function  . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of rosiglitazone and/or exercise training on novel cardiovascular risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. One hundred overweight/obese type 2 diabetes mellitus patients, with inadequate glycemic control (hemoglobin A(1c) >7%) despite combined treatment with gliclazide plus metformin, were randomized using a 2 x 2 factorial design to 4 equivalent (n = 25) groups, as follows: (1) CO: maintenance of habitual activities, (2) RSG: add-on therapy with rosiglitazone (8 mg/d), (3) EX: adjunctive exercise training, and (4) RSG + EX: supplementary administration of rosiglitazone (8 mg/d) plus exercise training. No participant had diabetic vascular complications or was receiving lipid-lowering therapy. Anthropometric parameters, cardiorespiratory capacity, glycemic and lipid profile, apolipoprotein (apo) A-I, apo B, interleukin (IL)-10, IL-18, insulin resistance, and blood pressure were measured before and after 12 months of intervention (P < .05). Both RSG and EX groups significantly reduced glycemic indexes, insulin resistance, blood pressure, and IL-18, whereas they significantly increased high-density lipoprotein, cardiorespiratory capacity, and IL-10, compared with CO group (P < .05). Besides this, exercise-treated patients conferred a remarkable down-regulation in the rest of lipid parameters (total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, apo B) and body fat content (P < .05) in comparison with CO group. On the other hand, RSG group rather than CO group considerably increased apo A-I levels and body mass index (P < .05). Notably, the combined treatment group yielded pronounced beneficial changes in glycemic indexes, lipid profile, insulin resistance, blood pressure, IL-10, IL-18, apo A-I, and apo B (vs CO group, P < .05). Furthermore, the addition of exercise to rosiglitazone treatment counteracted the drug-related negative effects on body weight, low-density lipoprotein, and total cholesterol. Rosiglitazone plus exercise training elicited additive effects on body composition, glycemic control, and traditional and novel cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients, indicating complementary effects.
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