Nine months aerobic fitness induced changes on blood lipids and lipoproteins in untrained subjects versus controls.
ABSTRACT Regular endurance exercise has favorable effects on cardiovascular risk factors. However, the impact of an exercise-induced change in aerobic fitness on blood lipids is often inconsistent. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of nine consecutive months of training on aerobic fitness and blood lipids in untrained adults. Thirty subjects 35-55 years of age (wt: 73.1 +/- 13.6 kg, height 171.1 +/- 9.0 cm, %body fat 24.6 +/- 6.3%, 14 males and 16 females) were randomly assigned to an exercise (EG) (N = 20) and control (CG) (N = 10) group. All subjects completed an incremental treadmill test, anthropometric measurements, and venous blood sample collection before and after the 9 months of exercise. Participants in the exercise group were supervised and adjusted for improvements in running performance, whereas no change was administered for the control group. One-way and multivariate ANOVA was conducted to determine significant differences in means for time and group in selected variables [body mass, % body fat, BMI; VO(2peak), km/h at 2.0 (v-LA2) and 4.0 (v-LA4) mmol l(-1) blood lactate (LA) concentration, km/h of the last load (v-max); TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, TG, Apo B, Apo A-1, and Lp (a)]. Correlation coefficients and multivariate regression analysis was used to determine the association between aerobic fitness and blood lipids. The exercise group improved significantly (P < 0.0001) in VO(2peak), v-LA2, v-LA4, v-max and exhibited a significant decrease in Apo B (P < 0.04) compared to the control group (NS). In 9 months, E achieved 24% increase in VO(2peak) and 18% reduction in Apo B, denoting the impact of cardiovascular fitness on cardiovascular risk.
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ABSTRACT: Ring-Dimiriou S, Kedenko L, Kedenko I, Feichtinger RG, Steinbacher P, Stoiber W, Foerster H, Felder T, Mueller E, Kofler B, Paulweber B. Does Genetic Variation in PPARGC1A Affect Exercise-Induced Changes in Ventilatory Thresholds and Metabolic Syndrome? JEPonline 2014;17(2):1-18. It has been demonstrated that single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor- coactivator-1 gene (PPARGC1A, rs8192678, G/A) affect the exercise-induced change in maximal oxygen uptake (VO2). However, studies investigating the effect of this SNP on submaximal exercise performance markers are quite sparse. Therefore, we investigated the effect of a 10-wk supervised cycling training (3x 60 min•wk-1) on VO2 and work rate at the point of optimal ventilatory efficiency (POE), anaerobic threshold (ANT), respiratory compensation point (RCP), and maximum level in subjects with different genotypes in PPARGC1A. Analyses were completed in 24 untrained men aged 58 ± 6 yrs. Regarding genotype (G/A; Gly482Ser), three groups were formed (3x n=8): GT1 (G/G, wild type, common allele frequency); GT2 (A/A, homozygous); and GT3 (G/A, heterozygous). Before and after the exercise intervention blood samples and body composition in the fasted state were tested, and an incremental cycle ergometer test (10 W•min-1) until volitional exhaustion with measurements of respiratory gas exchange and heart rate were completed. In sum, the occurrence rate of metabolic syndrome was not affected by genotype or short-term supervised cycling. Ten weeks of cycling at 80-100% ANT and 90-120% RCP improved VO2 and work rate at POE and RCP significantly. Furthermore, repeated ANOVA revealed a significant interaction between genotype and exercise with the highest responder in GT1 compared to GT3 and GT2. The results of this prospective study point towards the hypothesis that the SNP rs8192678 affects the trainability of aerobic capacity measured as VO2 or work rate at RCP of previously untrained middle-aged men. Key Words: PPARGC1A, Exercise-Induced Trainability, Untrained AdultsJEPonline. 04/2014; 17(2):1-18.
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ABSTRACT: While both endurance (E) and resistance (R) exercise improve various health and fitness variables, there is still debate regarding the optimal ordering of these modes of exercise within a concurrent bout. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of performing E before R (E-R) or R before E (R-E) on strength, VO2max, and body composition over the course of an 8-wk exercise program. Inactive college females (N = 23, 19.8 ± 0.22 yrs; 61.0 ± 2.5 kg) were randomly assigned to either an E-R (n = 13) or an R-E group (n= 10). Subjects trained 4 d/wk over the 8-wk study. The E portion consisted of 30 min of aerobic exercise at 70-80% HRR. The R portion utilized a 3-way split routine with subjects performing 3 sets of 8-12 repetitions for 5-6 different exercises using a load equal to 90-100% 10RM. There were 2 days of testing before and after 8 wk of training to determine performance and body composition. There were significant improvements in chest press (P<.001), leg press (P<.001), VO2max (P<.001), and LBM (P = .005) across both groups. Weight significantly increased (P =.038), but %BF did not change (P =.46). There were no differences as a function of group (P>.267). There were significant improvements in performance and LBM over an 8-week concurrent training program in inactive college females, regardless of the order in which R and E were performed. It appears that fitness markers improve similarly regardless of the order of R or E in a 4 d/wk program in inactive females. Therefore, the order of these modalities for beginning exercisers should be based on personal preference as well as to facilitate adherence.The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 12/2013; · 1.80 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abstract: The Present study aims to evaluate the effects of a one-year-long volleyball practice on the changes in the rates of Apo proteins A and B in the blood serum of non-athlete men. In order to do so, 30 subjects were selected randomly from among non-athlete male students and then were divided into two control and experimental groups. The experimental group on average aged 23±2. Their average height was 172.2 ± 3 cm and the average weight was 69.6 ± 3.1kg. On the other hand, the control group aged on average 22 ± 2 and their average height and weight were 170.3 ± 3.8 cm and 69.3 ± 2.7 kg. The experimental group went through a one-year-long volleyball exercise program in which they had to practice for 90 minutes three times in a week. The control group did not have any special practice .The covariance analysis was used to probe the rates of Apo A and B and analyze the data. The rates of Apo proteins, measured before the test in both groups, were taken as the covariate to correct the groups’ mean, increase the test’s precision and lessen the error risk. The test results revealed that in the experimental group a one- year-long sport exercises has meaningfully changed the level of Apo A in the blood (P= 0.01). There was not a significant difference in the rates of Apo A in the posttest measurements in both groups (P= 0.01). The amount of Apo B was also meaningfully different in pre and posttest in the experimental groups but the changes in the rates of Apo B in both control and experimental groups did not differ meaningfully.[Karim Salehzadeh, Yousef aghdam, Morteza Jourkesh. The Effects Of Long Term Physical Activity On The Changes In The Rates Of In Apo Proteins A And B In Nonathlete.Journal of American Science. 01/2011; 7(6):654-662.