The APOBEC-2 crystal structure and functional implications for the deaminase AID.

Molecular and Computational Biology, University of Southern California Los Angeles, California 90089, USA.
Nature (Impact Factor: 42.35). 02/2007; 445(7126):447-51. DOI: 10.1038/nature05492
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT APOBEC-2 (APO2) belongs to the family of apolipoprotein B messenger RNA-editing enzyme catalytic (APOBEC) polypeptides, which deaminates mRNA and single-stranded DNA. Different APOBEC members use the same deamination activity to achieve diverse human biological functions. Deamination by an APOBEC protein called activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is critical for generating high-affinity antibodies, and deamination by APOBEC-3 proteins can inhibit retrotransposons and the replication of retroviruses such as human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis B virus. Here we report the crystal structure of APO2. APO2 forms a rod-shaped tetramer that differs markedly from the square-shaped tetramer of the free nucleotide cytidine deaminase, with which APOBEC proteins share considerable sequence homology. In APO2, two long alpha-helices of a monomer structure prevent the formation of a square-shaped tetramer and facilitate formation of the rod-shaped tetramer via head-to-head interactions of two APO2 dimers. Extensive sequence homology among APOBEC family members allows us to test APO2 structure-based predictions using AID. We show that AID deamination activity is impaired by mutations predicted to interfere with oligomerization and substrate access. The structure suggests how mutations in patients with hyper-IgM-2 syndrome inactivate AID, resulting in defective antibody maturation.

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    ABSTRACT: Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is essential for class-switch recombination (CSR) and somatic hypermutation (SHM) of Ig genes. The AID C terminus is required for CSR, but not for S-region DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) during CSR, and it is not required for SHM. AID lacking the C terminus (ΔAID) is a dominant negative (DN) mutant, because human patients heterozygous for this mutant fail to undergo CSR. In agreement, we show that ΔAID is a DN mutant when expressed in AID-sufficient mouse splenic B cells. To have DN function, ΔAID must have deaminase activity, suggesting that its ability to induce DSBs is important for the DN function. Supporting this hypothesis, Msh2-Msh6 have been shown to contribute to DSB formation in S regions, and we find in this study that Msh2 is required for the DN activity, because ΔAID is not a DN mutant in msh2(-/-) cells. Our results suggest that the DNA DSBs induced by ΔAID are unable to participate in CSR and might interfere with the ability of full-length AID to participate in CSR. We propose that ΔAID is impaired in its ability to recruit nonhomologous end joining repair factors, resulting in accumulation of DSBs that undergo aberrant resection. Supporting this hypothesis, we find that the S-S junctions induced by ΔAID have longer microhomologies than do those induced by full-length AID. In addition, our data suggest that AID binds Sμ regions in vivo as a monomer.
    The Journal of Immunology 06/2014; · 5.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Antibody maturation is a critical immune process governed by the enzyme activation-induced deam-inase (AID), a member of the AID/APOBEC DNA deaminase family. AID/APOBEC deaminases prefer-entially target cytosine within distinct preferred se-quence motifs in DNA, with specificity largely con-ferred by a small 9–11 residue protein loop that dif-fers among family members. Here, we aimed to deter-mine the key functional characteristics of this protein loop in AID and to thereby inform our understanding of the mode of DNA engagement. To this end, we developed a methodology (Sat-Sel-Seq) that couples saturation mutagenesis at each position across the targeting loop, with iterative functional selection and next-generation sequencing. This high-throughput mutational analysis revealed dominant characteris-tics for residues within the loop and additionally yielded enzymatic variants that enhance deaminase activity. To rationalize these functional requirements, we performed molecular dynamics simulations that suggest that AID and its hyperactive variants can en-gage DNA in multiple specific modes. These find-ings align with AID's competing requirements for specificity and flexibility to efficiently drive antibody maturation. Beyond insights into the AID-DNA inter-face, our Sat-Sel-Seq approach also serves to further expand the repertoire of techniques for deep posi-tional scanning and may find general utility for high-throughput analysis of protein function.
    Nucleic Acids Research 07/2014; · 8.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The activation-induced deaminase (AID)/APOBEC cytidine deaminases participate in a diversity of biological processes from the regulation of protein expression to embryonic development and host defenses. In its classical role, AID mutates germline-encoded sequences of B cell receptors, a key aspect of adaptive immunity, and APOBEC1, mutates apoprotein B pre-mRNA, yielding two isoforms important for cellular function and plasma lipid metabolism. Investigations over the last ten years have uncovered a role of the APOBEC superfamily in intrinsic immunity against viruses and innate immunity against viral infection by deamination and mutation of viral genomes. Further, discovery in the area of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection revealed that the HIV viral infectivity factor protein interacts with APOBEC3G, targeting it for proteosomal degradation, overriding its antiviral function. More recently, our and others' work have uncovered that the AID and APOBEC cytidine deaminase family members have an even more direct link between activity against viral infection and induction and shaping of adaptive immunity than previously thought, including that of antigen processing for cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity and natural killer cell activation. Newly ascribed functions of these cytodine deaminases will be discussed, including their newly identified roles in adaptive immunity, epigenetic regulation, and cell differentiation. Herein this review we discuss AID and APOBEC cytodine deaminases as a link between innate and adaptive immunity uncovered by recent studies.
    Frontiers in Microbiology 10/2014; 5:534. · 3.94 Impact Factor


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