The APOBEC-2 crystal structure and functional implications for the deaminase AID.

Molecular and Computational Biology, University of Southern California Los Angeles, California 90089, USA.
Nature (Impact Factor: 42.35). 02/2007; 445(7126):447-51. DOI: 10.1038/nature05492
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT APOBEC-2 (APO2) belongs to the family of apolipoprotein B messenger RNA-editing enzyme catalytic (APOBEC) polypeptides, which deaminates mRNA and single-stranded DNA. Different APOBEC members use the same deamination activity to achieve diverse human biological functions. Deamination by an APOBEC protein called activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is critical for generating high-affinity antibodies, and deamination by APOBEC-3 proteins can inhibit retrotransposons and the replication of retroviruses such as human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis B virus. Here we report the crystal structure of APO2. APO2 forms a rod-shaped tetramer that differs markedly from the square-shaped tetramer of the free nucleotide cytidine deaminase, with which APOBEC proteins share considerable sequence homology. In APO2, two long alpha-helices of a monomer structure prevent the formation of a square-shaped tetramer and facilitate formation of the rod-shaped tetramer via head-to-head interactions of two APO2 dimers. Extensive sequence homology among APOBEC family members allows us to test APO2 structure-based predictions using AID. We show that AID deamination activity is impaired by mutations predicted to interfere with oligomerization and substrate access. The structure suggests how mutations in patients with hyper-IgM-2 syndrome inactivate AID, resulting in defective antibody maturation.

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    ABSTRACT: APOBEC3G (A3G) is a DNA cytidine deaminase (CD) which demonstrates antiviral activity against human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) and other pathogenic virus. It has an inactive N-terminal CD1 virus infectivity factor (Vif) protein binding domain (A3G-CD1), and an actively catalytic C-terminal CD2 deamination domain (A3G-CD2). Although many studies on the structure of A3G-CD2 and enzymatic properties of full-length A3G have been reported, the mechanism about how A3G interacts with HIV-1 single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) is still not well characterized. Here, we reported a crystal structure of novel A3G-CD2 head-to-tail (H-to-T, which means N-terminus of the monomer H interacts with the C-terminus of the monomer T) dimer, where a continuous DNA binding groove was observed. By constructing the A3G-CD1 structural model, we found that its overall fold was almost identical to that of A3G-CD2. We mutated the residues located in or along the groove in monomer H and the residues in A3G-CD1 which correspond to those seated in or along the groove in monomer T. Then, by performing enzymatic assays, we confirmed the reported key elements and the residues in A3G necessary to the catalytic deamination. Moreover, we identified more than ten residues in A3G essential to DNA binding and deamination reaction. Therefore, this dimer structure may represent a structural model of full-length A3G, which indicates possible binding mode of A3G to HIV-1 ssDNA. Copyright © 2014, The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 12/2014; DOI:10.1074/jbc.M114.624262 · 4.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) mutates cytidine to uridine at immunoglobulin loci to initiate secondary antibody diversification but also causes genome-wide damage. We previously demonstrated that AID has a relatively low catalytic rate. The structure of AID has not been solved. Thus, to probe the basis for its catalytic lethargy we generated a panel of free or DNA-bound AID models based on eight recently resolved APOBEC structures. Docking revealed that the majority of AID:DNA complexes would be inactive due to substrate binding such that a cytidine is not positioned for deamination. Furthermore, we found that most AID conformations exhibit fully or partially occluded catalytic pockets. We constructed mutant and chimeric AID variants predicted to have altered catalytic pocket accessibility dynamics and observed significant correlation with catalytic rate. Data from modeling simulations and functional tests of AID variants support the notion that catalytic pocket accessibility is an inherent bottleneck for AID activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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    ABSTRACT: The activation-induced deaminase (AID)/APOBEC cytidine deaminases participate in a diversity of biological processes from the regulation of protein expression to embryonic development and host defenses. In its classical role, AID mutates germline-encoded sequences of B cell receptors, a key aspect of adaptive immunity, and APOBEC1, mutates apoprotein B pre-mRNA, yielding two isoforms important for cellular function and plasma lipid metabolism. Investigations over the last ten years have uncovered a role of the APOBEC superfamily in intrinsic immunity against viruses and innate immunity against viral infection by deamination and mutation of viral genomes. Further, discovery in the area of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection revealed that the HIV viral infectivity factor protein interacts with APOBEC3G, targeting it for proteosomal degradation, overriding its antiviral function. More recently, our and others' work have uncovered that the AID and APOBEC cytidine deaminase family members have an even more direct link between activity against viral infection and induction and shaping of adaptive immunity than previously thought, including that of antigen processing for cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity and natural killer cell activation. Newly ascribed functions of these cytodine deaminases will be discussed, including their newly identified roles in adaptive immunity, epigenetic regulation, and cell differentiation. Herein this review we discuss AID and APOBEC cytodine deaminases as a link between innate and adaptive immunity uncovered by recent studies.
    Frontiers in Microbiology 10/2014; 5:534. DOI:10.3389/fmicb.2014.00534 · 3.94 Impact Factor


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