NTP-CERHR expert panel report on the reproductive and developmental toxicity of genistein.
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS, USA.Birth Defects Research Part B Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology (impact factor: 1.93). 01/2007; 77(6):485-638. DOI:10.1002/bdrb.20087 pp.485-638
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ABSTRACT: The ovariectomized (OVX), lactating rat model has been used to investigate the skeletal effects of the plant estrogen, genistein, over a 14-day period. The OVX, lactating rat on a low-calcium diet loses slightly more than 50% of its bone mineral mass during the first 2 weeks of lactation, and we have demonstrated that estrogen treatment can significantly reduce the loss of femoral mass (ash weight). Following OVX, the rats were assigned to treatment or control groups (both placebo and positive control with estrogen replacement). The treatment groups received one of three doses of a genistein-rich preparation each day via the feed for 2 weeks, after which time the pups began to have an interest in solid feed. A positive control group received conjugated estrogen in the feed. The genistein doses were: low (0.5 mg/d); intermediate (1.6 mg/d); and high (5.0 mg/d). Measurements included ash weights of the femur, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the proximal tibia, and uterine weights. SEM results were as follows: (1) at the low dose genistein was approximately equally effective to estrogen in the retention of cancellous bone tissue, as reflected in the number and density of trabeculae in hemisections of the tibial subepiphyseal region, but at high doses genistein was less effective; and (2) rats treated with low-dose genistein, like estradiol, had rougher endosteal surfaces and smaller pores on these surfaces than untreated control rats. Mean ash weights of the entire femur were highest in the rats treated with the low dose compared to control rats (P < 0.05), and they were higher than ash weights of rats administered the intermediate or high doses of genistein. The mean ash weights of the femurs were consistent with the genistein effects on the tibias observed by SEM. In summary, a biphasic response to the genistein preparation was found in this OVX rat model. Interpretation of the results suggests that, at the low dose, genistein appears to be an agonist at the estrogen receptor locus, whereas at higher doses the genistein is less effective and may even have adverse effects on bone cells. These findings of a biphasic effect of genistein (i.e., an inverted U effect) are consistent with those of other recent reports in the literature on isolated bone cells and on reproductive tissues. In summary, lower doses of genistein from soy foods would be expected to act similarly to estrogens with a beneficial effect on bone tissue, but at high doses that are unlikely to be consumed in human diets, this soy derivative may have potentially adverse effects on bone cell functions and thereby on bone tissue.Proceedings of The Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 03/1998; 217(3):345-50.
Article: Gene expression profile induced by 17alpha-ethynyl estradiol, bisphenol A, and genistein in the developing female reproductive system of the rat.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Exposure to some compounds with estrogenic activity, during fetal development, has been shown to alter development of reproductive organs, leading to abnormal function and disease either after birth or during adulthood. In order to understand the molecular events associated with the estrogenicity of different chemicals and to determine whether common sets of gene expression changes can be predictive of estrogenic activity, we have used microarray technology to determine the transcriptional program influenced by exposure to this class of compounds during organogenesis and development. Changes in patterns of gene expression were determined in the developing uterus and ovaries of Sprague-Dawley rats on GD 20, exposed to graded dosages (sc) of 17alpha-ethynyl estradiol (EE), genistein, or bisphenol A (BPA) from GD 11 to GD 20. Dose levels were roughly equipotent in estrogenic activity. We compared the transcript profiles between treatment groups and controls, using oligonucleotide arrays to determine the expression level of approximately 7000 rat genes and over 1000 expressed squence tags (ESTs). At the highest tested doses of EE, BPA, or genistein, we determined that less than 2% of the mRNA detected by the array showed a 2-fold or greater change in their expression level (increase or decrease). A dose-dependent analysis of the transcript profile revealed a common set of genes whose expression is significantly and reproducibly modified in the same way by each of the 3 chemicals tested. Additionally, each compound induces changes in the expression of other transcripts that are not in common with the others, which indicated not all compounds with estrogenic activity act alike. The results of this study demonstrate that transplacental exposure to chemicals with estrogenic activity changes the gene expression profile of estrogen-sensitive tissues, and that the analysis of the transcript profile of these tissues could be a valuable approach to determining the estrogenicity of different compounds.Toxicological Sciences 08/2002; 68(1):184-99. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Proteoglycans interact with soluble proteins such as growth factors and thereby regulate extracellular signals. During B lymphocyte maturation, secretion of proteoglycans may be functionally related to the different requirements of the respective maturation stage. In order to address this question we compared structures of proteoglycans released by three B lymphocyte lines which correspond to different maturation stages. Plasma-cell type U266 cells secreted the largest proteoglycans (150 kDa), followed by mature B cells JOK-1 (130 kDa) and pre-B cells Nalm 6 (90 kDa). On average, secreted proteoglycans carried four glycosaminoglycan chains with molecular masses ranging each from 32 kDa (U266) to 23 kDa (Nalm 6). All three cell lines secreted more than 90% of their proteoglycans possessing chondroitin sulfate chains having chondroitin-4-sulfate (delta Di-4S) as the prevalent disaccharide unit. In these proteochondroitin sulfates, unsulfated chondroitin (delta Di-0S) was present in smaller quantities and chondroitin-6-sulfate (delta Di-6S)-containing proteoglycan was released only by Nalm 6 and U266 cells. Cell line Nalm 6 exclusively produced proteochondroitin sulfate, whereas in culture medium of JOK-1 and U266 a small amount of proteoheparan sulfate was found also. In all three cell lines, treatment with chondroitinase ABC released a protein of 30 kDa and chemical deglycosylation resulted in a core protein of 21 kDa. In addition to pure proteochondroitin sulfate, a small portion of proteoheparan sulfate with a protein moiety of 30 kDa was detected after heparitinase treatment in supernatants of JOK-1 and U266. Thus, our results indicate that released proteoglycans may undergo modulations in their glycosaminoglycan moieties during B-cell differentiation. This may have functional consequences at the level of growth factor regulation.Carbohydrate Research 08/1997; 302(1-2):85-95. · 2.33 Impact Factor
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