Childhood overweight and cardiovascular disease risk factors: The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study

Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts, United States
The Journal of pediatrics (Impact Factor: 3.74). 02/2007; 150(1):18-25. DOI: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2006.09.039
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To estimate the prevalence and incidence of overweight in African-American and Caucasian girls, and to examine associations between adolescent overweight and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors.
In the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study (NGHS), annual measurements were obtained from girls followed longitudinally between age 9 or 10 and 18 years; self-reported measures were obtained at age 21 to 23 years. A total of 1166 Caucasian girls and 1213 African-American girls participated in the study. Childhood overweight as defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) was the independent variable of primary interest. Measured outcomes included blood pressure and lipid levels.
Rates of overweight increased through adolescence from 7% to 10% in the Caucasian girls and from 17% to 24% in the African-American girls. The incidence of overweight was greater at age 9 to 12 than in later adolescence. Girls who were overweight during childhood were 11 to 30 times more likely to be obese in young adulthood. Overweight was significantly associated with increased percent body fat, sum of skinfolds and waist circumference measurements, and unhealthful systolic and diastolic blood pressure, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels.
A relationship between CVD risk factors and CDC-defined overweight is present at age 9.


Available from: Frank Biro, Feb 19, 2014
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: La leucemia linfoblástica aguda (LLA) es la enfermedad maligna del niño más frecuente. El cuadro clínico inicial incluye signos asociados a la insuficiencia medular y signos directamente relacionados con la proliferación tumoral. Los cuatro signos del hemograma son: anemia normocroma normocítica arregenerativa, neutropenia, trombocitopenia y blastosis sanguínea, que pueden asociarse entre sí de distintas formas. El mielograma muestra la médula infiltrada de forma difusa por células linfoblásticas con reducción de la hematopoyesis normal residual. La LLA en el niño es una enfermedad heterogénea y pueden aislarse varias entidades en función del aspecto citológico, el fenotipo T o B de los linfoblastos y las anomalías del genoma de las células malignas. El tratamiento del primer episodio está basado casi exclusivamente en una quimioterapia intensiva cuyas modalidades están bien descritas. Las indicaciones de irradiación cerebral en la actualidad son menos frecuentes. Los trasplantes de células madre hematopoyéticas son raros en la primera remisión, pero constituyen el tratamiento de elección en los niños en segunda remisión. La tasa de curación global oscila alrededor del 80%, con importantes diferencias en función de algunos criterios pronósticos. El estado de salud de los niños curados no es igual al de la población general; los programas de seguimiento prolongado son indispensables. Sin embargo, la calidad de vida de la mayoría de los adultos curados está poco o nada afectada.
    01/2008; 43(4):1-11. DOI:10.1016/S1245-1789(08)70216-6
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to describe the distribution of waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) percentiles and cutoffs for obesity in Brazilian adolescents. A cross-sectional study including adolescents aged 10 to 15 years was conducted in the city of São Paulo, Brazil; anthropometric measurements (weight, height, and waist-circumference) were taken, and WHtRs were calculated and then divided into percentiles derived by using Least Median of Squares (LMS) regression. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used in determining cutoffs for obesity (BMI ≥97th percentile) and Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used for comparing variables. The study included 8,019 adolescents from 43 schools, of whom 54.5% were female, and 74.8% attended public schools. Boys had higher mean WHtR than girls (0.45±0.06 vs 0.44±0.05; p=0.002) and higher WHtR at the 95th percentile (0.56 vs 0.54; p<0.05). The WHtR cutoffs according to the WHO criteria ranged from 0.467 to 0.506 and 0.463 to 0.496 among girls and boys respectively, with high sensitivity (82.8-95%) and specificity (84-95.5%). The WHtR was significantly associated with body adiposity measured by BMI. Its age-specific percentiles and cutoffs may be used as additional surrogate markers of central obesity and its co-morbidities.
    Journal of Health Population and Nutrition 09/2014; 32(3):411-9. · 1.39 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To examine differences in self-reported perceived mental and physical health status, as well as known cardiometabolic risk factors in a sample of normal weight, overweight, and obese Mexican youths. Cross-sectional analysis of 164 youths aged 11-18 years recruited in Cuernavaca, Mexico. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire that included measures of generic and weight-specific quality of life, perceived health, physical function, depressive symptoms, and body shape satisfaction. Height, weight, and waist circumference were measured, and body mass index (BMI) was determined. Fasting blood samples from participants yielded levels of glucose, triglycerides, and cholesterol (total, HDL, and LDL). Nearly 50 % of participants were female, 21 % had a normal BMI, 39 % were overweight, and 40 % were obese. Obese youths reported significantly lower measures of perceived health status (PHS) and showed an increase in cardiometabolic risk, compared with normal weight youths. Physical functioning, generic and weight-specific QoL were inversely associated with BMI, waist circumference, and glucose. Depressive symptoms were positively correlated with BMI, waist circumference, glucose levels, and HDL cholesterol. No correlation was found between PHS and cardiometabolic risk measures after controlling for BMI. In this sample of Mexican youths, obesity was associated with a significantly lower PHS and increased cardiometabolic risk.
    Quality of Life Research 02/2015; DOI:10.1007/s11136-015-0922-x · 2.86 Impact Factor