Molecular screening and association studies of retinoid-related orphan receptor gamma (RORC): a positional and functional candidate for type 2 diabetes.
ABSTRACT The retinoid-related orphan receptor gamma (RORC) is a member of the nuclear hormone superfamily which maps to the 1q21-q23 region. Linkage of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) to this region is well replicated. Several factors argue that RORC is a strong candidate for T2DM susceptibility within this region. RORC may form heterodimers with peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor gamma, it is expressed at high levels in skeletal muscle, and expression is induced in adipocytes during differentiation. To test the hypothesis that sequence variation in RORC is a risk factor for T2DM, we screened approximately 21kb of DNA for sequence variation, including 11 exons of the RORC gene, a region 1-kb upstream (5' flanking region), intronic regions flanking the exons, and the entire 3' untranslated region (UTR). Screening was performed using single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis in Caucasian individuals of northern European ancestry and in African American individuals. We detected 11 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), ranging from the promoter region to intron 10. We also confirmed 2 SNPs from public databases that were in regions not included in our screening. Only 1 SNP was nonsynonymous, resulting in Ala to Gly at residue 464 (exon 10). All other SNPs were noncoding. One SNP (intron 3) was unique to Caucasians, and three SNPs (Ala464Gly, intron 2, intron 6) were specific to African American subjects. We typed 7 SNPs spanning the gene from the promoter to 3' UTR in unrelated cases with T2DM and controls of Northern European ancestry. We also tested linkage of a microsatellite within the RORC gene. Modest evidence for linkage (LOD=1.47) was seen on two-point analysis, but no linkage to the RORC region was found on multipoint analysis. However, transmission of the microsatellite alleles from parents to affected offspring showed a trend to deviate from the expected 50% (p=0.078). No association of any other SNP with T2DM was found, but the Ala454Gly variant was 3-fold more common among African American patients with diabetes than in controls. SNPs 1, 2 and 4 were in strong linkage disequilibrium (D>0.85) and may constitute a haplotype block. Our data suggest that RORC cannot explain the linkage of T2DM in this region. The role of the unusual Ala454Gly variant will require a much larger study size to evaluate.
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ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to determine the existence of melatonin membrane receptors and to examine the mRNA expression of nuclear orphan receptors in human pancreatic tissue, in an effort to explain differences between type 2 diabetic and metabolically healthy patients. Molecular and immunocytochemical investigations established the presence of the melatonin membrane receptors MT1 and MT2 in human pancreatic tissue and, notably, also in the islets of Langerhans. Results of a calculation model to determine mRNA expression ratios, as well as subjective analysis of immunoreactions, showed elevated MT1 receptor expression in comparison with MT2 expression. mRNA transcript levels of melatonin receptors appeared to be significantly higher in type 2 diabetic patients than in a control group. An upregulation of receptor expression in type 2 diabetic patients was also observed in immunocytochemical investigations. In addition, transcripts of the nuclear orphan receptors RORalpha, RZRbeta, RORgamma and RevErbalpha were detected in human pancreatic tissue and islets. In correlation with membrane melatonin receptors, data indicate increased mRNA expression levels of RORalpha, RZRbeta, and RORgamma in type 2 diabetic patients. Thus, our data demonstrate the existence of the melatonin membrane receptors MT1 and MT2 as well as mRNA expression of nuclear orphan receptors in human pancreatic tissue, with upregulated expression levels in type 2 diabetic patients.Journal of Pineal Research 05/2007; 42(4):350-8. · 5.79 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The genetic makeup that individuals inherit from their ancestors is responsible for variation in responses to food and susceptibility to chronic diseases such as Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Common variations in gene sequences, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms, produce differences in complex traits such as height or weight potential, food metabolism, food-gene interactions, and disease susceptibilities. Nutritional genomics, or nutrigenomics, is the study of how foods affect the expression of genetic information in an individual and how an individual's genetic makeup affects the metabolism and response to nutrients and other bioactive components in food. Since both diet and genes alter one's health and susceptibility to disease, identifying genes that are regulated by diet and that cause or contribute to chronic diseases could result in the development of diagnostic tools, individualized intervention, and eventually strategies for maintaining health. Translating this research through clinical studies promises contributions to the development of personalized medicine that includes nutritional as well as drug interventions. Reviewed here are the key nutrigenomic concepts that help explain aspects of the development and complexity of T2DM.Nutrition, metabolism, and cardiovascular diseases: NMCD 03/2007; 17(2):89-103. · 3.52 Impact Factor