Article

Mice with a deletion in the gene for CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta are protected against diet-induced obesity.

Department of Nutrition, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA.
Diabetes (Impact Factor: 7.9). 02/2007; 56(1):161-7. DOI: 10.2337/db06-0310
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta (C/EBPbeta) is required for adipocyte differentiation and maturation. We have studied the role of the transcription factor, C/EBPbeta, in the development of diet-induced obesity. Mice with a deletion in the gene for C/EBPbeta (C/EBPbeta(-/-)) and wild-type mice were fed a high-fat diet (60% fat) for 12 weeks. The C/EBPbeta(-/-) mice lost body fat, whereas the wild-type mice increased their total body fat on a high-fat diet. The C/EBPbeta(-/-) mice had lower levels of blood triglycerides, free fatty acids, cholesterol, and hepatic triglyceride accumulation compared with the wild-type mice, thus protecting them from diet-induced obesity and fatty liver on a high-fat diet. Deletion of C/EBPbeta gene resulted in greatly reducing hepatic lipogenic genes, acetyl CoA carboxylase, and fatty acid synthase and increasing the expression of beta-oxidation genes in the brown adipose tissue. CO(2) production was significantly higher in the C/EBPbeta(-/-) mice as was the level of uncoupling protein (UCP)-1 and UCP-3 in the muscle. In conclusion, the transcription factor C/EBPbeta is an important regulator in controlling lipid metabolism and in the development of diet-induced obesity.

1 Bookmark
 · 
63 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA in mitochondria is catalyzed by the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC). Activity of PDC is inhibited by phosphorylation via the pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases (PDKs). Here, we examined the regulation of Pdk4 gene expression by the CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ). C/EBPβ modulates the expression of multiple hepatic genes including those involved in metabolism, development, and inflammation. We found that C/EBPβ induced Pdk4 gene expression and decreased PDC activity. This transcriptional induction was mediated through two C/EBPβ binding sites in the Pdk4 promoter. C/EBPβ participates in the hormonal regulation of gluconeogenic genes. Previously, we reported that Pdk4 was induced by thyroid hormone (T(3)). Therefore, we investigated the role of C/EBPβ in the T(3) regulation of Pdk4. T(3) increased C/EBPβ abundance in primary rat hepatocytes. Knockdown of C/EBPβ with siRNA diminished the T(3) induction of the Pdk4 and carnitine palmitoyltransferase (Cpt1a) genes. CPT1a is an initiating step in the mitochondrial oxidation of long chain fatty acids. Our results indicate that C/EBPβ stimulates Pdk4 expression and participates in the T(3) induction of the Cpt1a and Pdk4 genes.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 05/2011; 286(27):23799-807. · 4.65 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: 11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) catalyses intracellular regeneration of active glucocorticoids, notably in liver and adipose tissue. 11β-HSD1 is increased selectively in adipose tissue in human obesity, a change implicated in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome. With high fat (HF)-feeding, adipose tissue 11β-HSD1 is down-regulated in mice, plausibly to counteract metabolic disease. Transcription of 11β-HSD1 is directly regulated by members of the CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) family. Here we show that while total C/EBPβ in adipose tissue is unaltered by HF diet, the ratio of the C/EBPβ isoforms liver-enriched inhibitor protein (LIP) and liver-enriched activator protein (LAP) (C/EBPβ-LIP:LAP) is increased in subcutaneous adipose. This may cause changes in 11β-HSD1 expression since genetically modified C/EBPβ((+/L)) mice, with increased C/EBPβ-LIP:LAP ratio, have decreased subcutaneous adipose 11β-HSD1 mRNA levels, whereas C/EBPβ(ΔuORF) mice, with decreased C/EBPβ-LIP:LAP ratio, show increased subcutaneous adipose 11β-HSD1. C/EBPβ-LIP:LAP ratio is regulated by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and mTOR signalling, both of which are altered in obesity. In 3T3-L1 adipocytes, 11β-HSD1 mRNA levels were down-regulated following induction of ER stress by tunicamycin but were up-regulated following inhibition of mTOR by rapamycin. These data point to a central role for C/EBPβ and its processing to LIP and LAP in transcriptional regulation of 11β-HSD1 in adipose tissue. Down-regulation of 11β-HSD1 by increased C/EBPβ-LIP:LAP in adipocytes may be part of a nutrient-sensing mechanism counteracting nutritional stress generated by HF diet.
    PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(5):e37953. · 3.73 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Diet-induced obesity (DIO) predisposes individuals to insulin resistance, and adipose tissue has a major role in the disease. Insulin resistance can be induced in cultured adipocytes by a variety of treatments, but what aspects of the in vivo responses are captured by these models remains unknown. We use global RNA sequencing to investigate changes induced by TNF-α, hypoxia, dexamethasone, high insulin, and a combination of TNF-α and hypoxia, comparing the results to the changes in white adipose tissue from DIO mice. We found that different in vitro models capture distinct features of DIO adipose insulin resistance, and a combined treatment of TNF-α and hypoxia is most able to mimic the in vivo changes. Using genome-wide DNase I hypersensitivity followed by sequencing, we further examined the transcriptional regulation of TNF-α-induced insulin resistance, and we found that C/EPBβ is a potential key regulator of adipose insulin resistance.
    Cell Reports 10/2013; · 7.20 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

View
20 Downloads
Available from
May 29, 2014