Induction of Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase by Interferon-γ in Human Islets
ABSTRACT Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) catalyzes the initial, rate-limiting step of tryptophan (Trp) catabolism along the kynurenine (KYN) pathway, and its induction in cells of the immune system in response to cytokines has been implicated in the regulation of antigen presentation and responses to cell-mediated immune attack. Microarray and quantitative PCR analyses of isolated human islets incubated with interferon (IFN)-gamma for 24 h revealed increased expression of IDO mRNA (>139-fold) and Trp-tRNA synthase (WARS) (>17-fold) along with 975 other transcripts more than threefold, notably the downstream effectors janus kinase (JAK)2, signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)1, IFN-gamma regulatory factor-1, and several chemokines (CXCL9/MIG, CXCL10/IP10, CXCL11/1-TAC, CCL2, and CCL5/RANTES) and their receptors. IDO protein expression was upregulated in IFN-gamma-treated islets and accompanied by increased intracellular IDO enzyme activity and the release of KYN into the media. The response to IFN-gamma was countered by interleukin-4 and 1alpha-methyl Trp. Immunohistochemical localization showed IDO to be induced in cells of both endocrine, including pancreatic duodenal homeobox 1-positive beta-cells, and nonendocrine origin. We postulate that in the short term, IDO activation may protect islets from cytotoxic damage, although chronic exposure to various Trp metabolites could equally lead to beta-cell attrition.
- SourceAvailable from: Malin Flodstrom-Tullberg[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Enterovirus infections, in particular those with Coxsackieviruses, have been linked to the development of type 1 diabetes (T1D). Although animal models have demonstrated that interferons (IFNs) regulate virus-induced T1D by acting directly on the beta cell, little is known on the human pancreatic islet response to IFNs. Here we show that human islet cells respond to IFNs by expressing signature genes of antiviral defense. We also demonstrate that they express three intracellular sensors for viral RNA, the toll like receptor 3 (TLR3) gene, the retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) and the melanoma differentiation-associated gene-5 (MDA-5), which induce type I IFN production in infected cells. Finally, we show for the first time that the IFN-induced antiviral state provides human islets with a powerful protection from the replication of Coxsackievirus. This may be critical for beta cell survival and protection from virus-induced T1D in humans.Virology 11/2007; 367(1):92-101. DOI:10.1016/j.virol.2007.05.010 · 3.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: More than one-half of the ~50 human chemokines have been associated with or implicated in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes, yet their actual expression patterns in the islet environment of type 1 diabetic patients remain, at present, poorly defined. Here, we have integrated a human islet culture system, murine models of virus-induced and spontaneous type 1 diabetes, and the histopathological examination of pancreata from diabetic organ donors with the goal of providing a foundation for the informed selection of potential therapeutic targets within the chemokine/receptor family. Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand (CCL) 5 (CCL5), CCL8, CCL22, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand (CXCL) 9 (CXCL9), CXCL10, and chemokine (C-X3-C motif) ligand (CX3CL) 1 (CX3CL1) were the major chemokines transcribed (in an inducible nitric oxide synthase-dependent but not nuclear factor-κB-dependent fashion) and translated by human islet cells in response to in vitro inflammatory stimuli. CXCL10 was identified as the dominant chemokine expressed in vivo in the islet environment of prediabetic animals and type 1 diabetic patients, whereas CCL5, CCL8, CXCL9, and CX3CL1 proteins were present at lower levels in the islets of both species. Of importance, additional expression of the same chemokines in human acinar tissues emphasizes an underappreciated involvement of the exocrine pancreas in the natural course of type 1 diabetes that will require consideration for additional type 1 diabetes pathogenesis and immune intervention studies.Diabetes 12/2011; 61(2):436-46. DOI:10.2337/db11-0853 · 8.47 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Malaria remains one of the world's greatest killers and a vaccine is urgently required. There are no established correlates of protection against malaria either for natural immunity to the disease or for immunity conferred by candidate malaria vaccines. The RTS,S/AS02A vaccine offers significant partial efficacy against malaria. mRNA expression of five key cytokines interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), monokine induced by gamma (MIG), interleukin-10 (IL-10), transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and forkhead box P3 (FoxP3) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were measured by real-time RT-PCR before and after vaccination with RTS,S/AS02A and Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara encoding the circumsporozoite protein (MVA-CS) in healthy malaria-naïve adult volunteers. The only significant change was in IFN-γ mRNA expression, which was increased seven days after vaccination (P = 0.04). Expression of MIG mRNA seven days after vaccination correlated inversely with time to detection of parasites by blood film in an experimental sporozoite challenge (r = 0.94 P = 0.005). An inverse relationship was seen between both TGF-β1 and IL-10 mRNA at baseline and the anti-circumsporozoite IgG antibody response (r = −0.644 P = 0.022 and r = −0.554 P = 0.031 respectively). This study demonstrates the potential for MIG expression as a correlate of protection against malaria. Baseline levels of the regulatory cytokines TGF-β and IL-10 inversely correlated with antibody levels post vaccination and warrant further studies to improve understanding of individual differences in response to vaccination.PLoS ONE 09/2010; 5(9):e12557. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0012557 · 3.53 Impact Factor