Synthesis of RNA containing O-beta-D-ribofuranosyl-(1''-2')-adenosine-5''-phosphate and 1-methyladenosine, minor components of tRNA.
ABSTRACT tRNA is best known for its function as amino acid carrier in the translation process, using the anticodon loop in the recognition process with mRNA. However, the impact of tRNA on cell function is much wider, and mutations in tRNA can lead to a broad range of diseases. Although the cloverleaf structure of tRNA is well-known based on X-ray-diffraction studies, little is known about the dynamics of this fold, the way structural dynamics of tRNA is influenced by the modified nucleotides present in tRNA, and their influence on the recognition of tRNA by synthetases, ribosomes, and other biomolecules. One of the reasons for this is the lack of good synthetic methods to incorporate modified nucleotides in tRNA so that larger amounts become available for NMR studies. Except of 2'-O-methylated nucleosides, only one other sugar-modified nucleoside is present in tRNA, i.e., 2'-O-beta-D-ribofuranosyl nucleosides. The T loop of tRNA often contains charged modified nucleosides, of which 1-methyladenosine and phosphorylated disaccharide nucleosides are striking examples. A protecting-group strategy was developed to introduce 1-methyladenosine and 5''-O-phosphorylated 2'-O-(beta-D-ribofuranosyl)-beta-D-ribofuranosyladenine in the same RNA fragment. The phosphorylation of the disaccharide nucleoside was performed after the assembly of the RNA on solid support. The modified RNA was characterized by mass-spectrometry analysis from the RNase T1 digestion fragments. The successful synthesis of this T loop of the tRNA of Schizosaccharomyces pombe initiator tRNA(Met) will be followed by its structural analysis by NMR and by studies on the influence of these modified nucleotides on dynamic interactions within the complete tRNA.
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ABSTRACT: The main structural features of disaccharide nucleosides, an important group of natural compounds, are reviewed. The preparation and properties of modified oligonucleotides constructed on their basis and the incorporation of reactive groups are summarized. Several examples are given for the use of the compounds to investigate the enzymes of nucleic acid metabolism.Molecular Biology 43(2):301-312. · 0.64 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The review summarizes structural features, biological activity and synthetic methods of disaccharide nucleosides. In the first part the structures of natural disaccharide nucleosides are presented. The consequent part deals with general methods of synthesis of these compounds - formation of new N-and O-glycosidic bonds. Recent achievements in the preparation of disaccharide nucleosides from natural nucleosides are discussed. The last part is devoted to the synthesis and properties of oligonucleotides containing disaccharide nucleosides.Current Organic Chemistry 02/2007; 11(4):337-354. · 3.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Synthesis of 5''-phosphate 2'-O-ribosylribonucleosides [Nr(p)] of four common ribonucleosides, and 3'-phosphoramidites of 5''-phosphate 2'-O-ribosyladenosine and 2'-O-ribosylguanosine using the H-phosphonate chemistry is described. An additional ring protected by benzoyl groups was incorporated into the main ribosyl ring in the reaction with 1-O-acetyl-2,3,5-tri-O-benzoyl-β-d-ribofuranose in the presence of SnCl4. The obtained 2'-O-ribosylribonucleosides (Nr) were applied in the subsequent transformations with selective deprotection. Ethanolamine was applied as a very convenient reagent for selective removal of benzoyl groups. Additionally, the tetraisopropyldisiloxane-1,3-diyl (TIPDSi) group was found to be stable under these deprotection conditions. Thus, the selectively deprotected 5''-hydroxyl group of Nr was transformed into an H-phosphonate monoester which was found to be stable under the following conditions: the removal of the TIPDSi group with triethylammonium fluoride and the dimethoxytritylation of the 5''-hydroxyl function. The 5''-H-phosphonate of Nr precursors was easily transformed to the corresponding dicyanoethyl 5''-O-phosphotriesters before phosphitylation, which gave 3'-phosphoramidite units of Nr(p) in high yield. The derived phosphoramidite units were used in an automated oligonucleotide synthesizer to produce dimer Ar(p)T via the phosphoramidite approach. The obtained products were fully deprotected under standard deprotection conditions giving dimers with a 5''-phosphate monoester function. Application of an alkaline phosphatase to prove the presence of an additional phosphate group was described.Molecules 01/2013; 18(12):14780-96. · 2.43 Impact Factor