Oropharyngeal plasmacytic hyperplasia in a post-liver transplant recipient: Morphologic and histologic signs

Division of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA.
Liver Transplantation (Impact Factor: 4.24). 01/2007; 13(1):170-2. DOI: 10.1002/lt.20993
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a well-known complication of both solid organ and bone marrow transplantation. It includes a wide spectrum of proliferative changes ranging from reactive hyperplasia, borderline lesions to malignant lymphomas. PTLD develops in 1% to 10% of transplant recipients. We present 10 cases of PTLD. Five developed after renal, four after liver, and one after heart transplantation. Among the early lesions, we diagnosed two reactive plasmacytic hyperplasias; one infectious mononucleosis-like PTLD; one polymorphic lesion; and one "mixed" case of plasmacytic hyperplasia in one tonsil with a polymorphic PTLD in the second one. Among the lymphomas, we observed three diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL); one mantle lymphoma; and one Hodgkin lymphoma-like PTLD. The morphological pictures of six PTLD cases were typical and posed no diagnostic problems. In the one case of plasmacytic hyperplasia, the lymph node morphology was atypical with atrophy of lymphoid components accompanying plasma cell proliferation. Contrary to a good prognosis of early, reactive PTLD, this patient experienced a rapid course and succumbed to sepsis. The most difficult case was a rare Hodgkin lymphoma-like PTLD, which was diagnosed only by a bone marrow biopsy. Because of its noncharacteristic immunophenotype, it was primarily diagnosed as an anaplastic lymphoma of the T-cell type. After additional immunohistochemical studies (BOB and OCT2), we established the final diagnosis of Hodgkin lymphoma-like PTLD. Due to the increasing number of organ transplantations, doctors of various specialties may encounter PTLD.
    Transplantation Proceedings 01/2006; 38(1):168-72. DOI:10.1016/j.transproceed.2005.12.072 · 0.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Twenty cases of posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders arising in solid organ allograft recipients (18 patients) or bone marrow allograft recipients (2 patients: 1 autologous; 1 allogeneic) were selected for presentation at the Society for Hematopathology Workshop. In the course of the Workshop discussions, based both on the submitted cases and the combined experience of the participants, it was possible to agree on several distinctive categories of PTLD. These include (1) early lesions, (2) polymorphic posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLDs), (3) monomorphic PTLDs (B- and T-cell lymphomas), (4) plasmacytoma-like lesions, and (5) T-cell-rich large B-cell lymphoma/Hodgkin's disease-like lesions. Monomorphic lesions should be classified according to a recognized classification of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, although specified in the report as PTLD. Polymorphic lesions should be carefully evaluated for clonality; by immunophenotyping; and, if necessary, analysis of antigen-receptor and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genomes. Minimal pathological evaluation should include routine morphology, immunophenotyping on fresh tissue (flow cytometry or frozen section), and preservation of tissue for molecular genetic analysis. Analysis of the presence of EBV can be useful in establishing whether early or equivocal lesions represent PTLD (EBV+) or unrelated processes, but is not required in most cases. The pathologist can make an important contribution to the management of patients with PTLD by providing a complete diagnostic evaluation of the biopsy specimens (this is the least expensive part of the care of a transplant patients, not a place to try to cut costs) and making sure the attending physicians understand the special issues in management of PTLD.
    Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology 03/1997; 14(1):8-14. · 2.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Since 1995, the European Association of Pathologists and the Society for Hematopathology have been developing a new World Health Organization (WHO) classification of hematologic malignancies. The classification includes lymphoid, myeloid, histiocytic, and mast cell neoplasms. The WHO project involves 10 committees of pathologists, who have developed lists and definitions of disease entities. A Clinical Advisory Committee of international hematologists and oncologists was formed to ensure that the classification will be useful to clinicians. A meeting was held in November 1997 to discuss clinical issues related to the classification. The WHO has adopted the Revised European-American Classification of Lymphoid Neoplasms, published in 1994 by the International Lymphoma Study Group, as the classification of lymphoid neoplasms. This approach to classification is based on the principle that a classification is a list of "real" disease entities, which are defined by a combination of morphology, immunophenotype, genetic features, and clinical features. The relative importance of each of these features varies among diseases, and there is no one "gold standard." The WHO classification has applied the principles of the Revised European-American Classification of Lymphoid Neoplasms to myeloid and histiocytic neoplasms. The classification of myeloid neoplasms recognizes distinct entities defined by a combination of morphology and cytogenetic abnormalities. The Clinical Advisory Committee meeting, which was organized around a series of clinical questions, was able to reach a consensus on most of the questions posed. The questions and the consensus are discussed in detail in this article. Among other things, the Clinical Advisory Committee concluded that clinical grouping of lymphoid neoplasms was neither necessary nor desirable. Patient treatment is determined by the specific type of lymphoma, with the addition of grade within the tumor type, if applicable, and clinical prognostic factors such as the international prognostic index. The experience of developing the WHO classification has produced a new and exciting degree of cooperation and communication between oncologists and pathologists from around the world. This should facilitate progress in the understanding and treatment of hematologic malignancies.
    Modern Pathology 03/2000; 13(2):193-207. DOI:10.1038/modpathol.3880035 · 6.19 Impact Factor


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