Article

Team-based prevention of catheter-related infections.

New England Journal of Medicine (Impact Factor: 54.42). 01/2007; 355(26):2781-3. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMe068230
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT Purpose: Patients at long-term acute care hospitals (LTACs) are medically complex with multiple comorbidities and high rates of antibiotic and device use. The objective of the study was to analyze the incidence and rate of central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI) and the critical factors for patient care, management, placement and maintenance of the implanted central venous access device at this LTAC. Methods: A 13-year retrospective chart review was performed comprising 191 medically complex patients with multiple comorbidities who had an implanted central line port. Information analyzed included ( 1 ) number of catheters; ( 2 ) number of patients; ( 3 ) number of catheter line days; ( 4 ) patient demographics; ( 5 ) port location; ( 6 ) admission diagnoses; ( 7 ) type, incidence and rate of catheter-related complications. Results: The total number of catheter days was over 183,183 with a mean of 959 catheter days per patient. The mean rate of CLABSI was 0.087 per 1,000 days; incidence was less than 8% of patients with catheters. Conclusions: The study found a markedly lower rate of CLABSI than reported for other LTACs as well as intensive care units, over 14- to 100-fold lower than other LTACs. The authors propose that standardized catheter placement with implementation of rigorous, prospective catheter care plans and a team approach to management were responsible for extremely low complication rates. These results can be extrapolated to different settings across the healthcare continuum.
    The journal of vascular access 10/2013; DOI:10.5301/jva.5000178 · 1.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bloodstream infections resulting from intravascular catheters (catheter-BSI) in critical care increase patients' length of stay, morbidity and mortality, and the management of these infections and their complications has been estimated to cost the NHS annually £19.1-36.2M. Catheter-BSI are thought to be largely preventable using educational interventions, but guidance as to which types of intervention might be most clinically effective is lacking. To assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of educational interventions for preventing catheter-BSI in critical care units in England. Sixteen electronic bibliographic databases - including MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), NHS Economic Evaluation Database (NHS EED), EMBASE and The Cochrane Library databases - were searched from database inception to February 2011, with searches updated in March 2012. Bibliographies of systematic reviews and related papers were screened and experts contacted to identify any additional references. References were screened independently by two reviewers using a priori selection criteria. A descriptive map was created to summarise the characteristics of relevant studies. Further selection criteria developed in consultation with the project Advisory Group were used to prioritise a subset of studies relevant to NHS practice and policy for systematic review. A decision-analytic economic model was developed to investigate the cost-effectiveness of educational interventions for preventing catheter-BSI. Seventy-four studies were included in the descriptive map, of which 24 were prioritised for systematic review. Studies have predominantly been conducted in the USA, using single-cohort before-and-after study designs. Diverse types of educational intervention appear effective at reducing the incidence density of catheter-BSI (risk ratios statistically significantly < 1.0), but single lectures were not effective. The economic model showed that implementing an educational intervention in critical care units in England would be cost-effective and potentially cost-saving, with incremental cost-effectiveness ratios under worst-case sensitivity analyses of < £5000/quality-adjusted life-year. Low-quality primary studies cannot definitively prove that the planned interventions were responsible for observed changes in catheter-BSI incidence. Poor reporting gave unclear estimates of risk of bias. Some model parameters were sourced from other locations owing to a lack of UK data. Our results suggest that it would be cost-effective and may be cost-saving for the NHS to implement educational interventions in critical care units. However, more robust primary studies are needed to exclude the possible influence of secular trends on observed reductions in catheter-BSI. The study is registered with PROSPERO as CRD42012001840. The National Institute for Health Research Health Technology Assessment programme.
    02/2014; 18(15):1-365. DOI:10.3310/hta18150
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction. Blood stream infection (BSI) is a common problem of newborn in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). Monitoring neonatal infections is increasingly regarded as an important contributor to safe and high-quality healthcare. It results in high mortality rate and serious complications. So, our aim was to determine the incidence and the pattern of BSIs in the NICU of Suez Canal University Hospital, Egypt, and to determine its impact on hospitalization, mortality, and morbidity. Methods. This study was a prospective one in which all neonates admitted to the NICUs in Suez Canal University hospital between January, 2013 and June 2013 were enrolled. Blood stream infections were monitored prospectively. The health care associated infection rate, mortality rate, causative organism, and risk factors were studied. Results. A total of 317 neonates were admitted to the NICU with a mortality rate of 36.0%. During this study period, 115/317 (36.3%) developed clinical signs of sepsis and were confirmed as BSIs by blood culture in only 90 neonates with 97 isolates. The total mean length of stay was significantly longer among infected than noninfected neonates (34.5 ± 18.3 and 10.8 ± 9.9 days, resp., P value < 0.001). The overall mortality rates among infected and noninfected neonates were 38.9% and 34.8%, respectively, with a significant difference. Klebsiella spp. were the most common pathogen (27.8%) followed by Pseudomonas (21.6%) and Staphylococcus aureus (15.4%). Conclusion. The rate of BSIs in NICU at Suez Canal University Hospital was relatively high with high mortality rate (36.0%).
    International Journal of Microbiology 01/2014; 2014:276873. DOI:10.1155/2014/276873

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