Article

Oral versus intravenous flucytosine in patients with human immunodeficiency virus-associated cryptococcal meningitis.

Centre of Infection, St George's University of London, London SW17 ORE, United Kingdom.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (Impact Factor: 4.57). 04/2007; 51(3):1038-42. DOI: 10.1128/AAC.01188-06
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT In a randomized controlled trial of amphotericin B-based therapy for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated cryptococcal meningitis in Thailand, we also compared the mycological efficacy, toxicity, and pharmacokinetics of oral versus intravenous flucytosine at 100 mg/kg of body weight/day for the initial 2 weeks. Half of 32 patients assigned to the two arms containing flucytosine were randomized to oral and half to intravenous flucytosine. Early fungicidal activity was determined from serial quantitative cultures of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and toxicity was assessed by clinical and laboratory monitoring. Flucytosine and fluorouracil concentrations in plasma and CSF were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. No significant bone marrow or hepatotoxicity was seen, there was no detectable difference in bone marrow toxicity between patients on intravenous and those on oral formulation, and no patients discontinued treatment. In patients receiving intravenous flucytosine, the median 24-h area under the concentration-time curve was significantly higher than in the oral group. Despite this difference, there was no difference in early fungicidal activity between patients on intravenous compared with patients on oral flucytosine. The results suggest that either formulation can be used safely at this dosage in a developing country setting, without drug concentration monitoring. The bioavailability of the oral formulation may be reduced in late-stage HIV-infected patients in Thailand. Concentrations of flucytosine with intravenous formulation at 100 mg/kg/day may be in excess of those required for maximal fungicidal activity.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
95 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Invasive fungal disease (IFD) remains life threatening in premature infants and immunocompromised children despite the recent development of new antifungal agents. Optimal dosing of antifungals is one of the few factors clinicians can control to improve outcomes of IFD. However, dosing in children cannot be extrapolated from adult data because IFD pathophysiology, immune response, and drug disposition differ from adults. We critically examined the literature on pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of antifungal agents and highlight recent developments in treating pediatric IFD. To match adult exposure in pediatric patients, dosing adjustment is necessary for almost all antifungals. In young infants, the maturation of renal and metabolic functions occurs rapidly and can significantly influence drug exposure. Fluconazole clearance doubles from birth to 28 days of life and, beyond the neonatal period, agents such as fluconazole, voriconazole, and micafungin require higher dosing than in adults because of faster clearance in children. As a result, dosing recommendations are specific to bracketed ranges of age. PD principles of antifungals mostly rely on in vitro and in vivo models but very few PD studies specifically address IFD in children. The exposure-response relationship may differ in younger children compared with adults, especially in infants with invasive candidiasis who are at higher risk of disseminated disease and meningoencephalitis, and by extension severe neurodevelopmental impairment. Micafungin is the only antifungal agent for which a specific target of exposure was proposed based on a neonatal hematogenous Candida meningoencephalitis animal model. In this review, we found that pediatric data on drug disposition of newer triazoles and echinocandins are lacking, dosing of older antifungals such as fluconazole and amphotericin B products still need optimization in young infants, and that target PK/PD indices need to be clinically validated for almost all antifungals in children. A better understanding of age-specific PK and PD of new antifungals in infants and children will help improve clinical outcomes of IFD by informing dosing and identifying future research areas.
    Drugs 05/2014; · 4.13 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Current, widely accepted guidelines for the management of HIV-associated cryptococcal meningoencephalitis (CM) recommend amphotericin B combined with flucytosine (5-FC) for ≥2 weeks as the initial induction treatment of choice. However, access to flucytosine in Africa and Asia, where disease burden is greatest, is inadequate at present. While research into identifying effective and well-tolerated antifungal combinations that do not contain flucytosine continues, an ever-increasing body of evidence from in vitro, in vivo and clinical studies points to the benefits of flucytosine in the treatment of CM in both intravenous combinations with amphotericin B and oral combinations with high-dose fluconazole. This article provides an up-to-date review of this evidence, and the current issues and challenges regarding increasing access to this key component of combination antifungal therapy for cryptococcosis.
    Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 06/2013; · 5.34 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cryptococcal meningitis is the leading cause of adult meningitis in sub-Saharan Africa, and contributes up to 20% of AIDS-related mortality in low-income and middle-income countries every year. Antifungal treatment for cryptococcal meningitis relies on three old, off-patent antifungal drugs: amphotericin B deoxycholate, flucytosine, and fluconazole. Widely accepted treatment guidelines recommend amphotericin B and flucytosine as first-line induction treatment for cryptococcal meningitis. However, flucytosine is unavailable in Africa and most of Asia, and safe amphotericin B administration requires patient hospitalisation and careful laboratory monitoring to identify and treat common side-effects. Therefore, fluconazole monotherapy is widely used in low-income and middle-income countries for induction therapy, but treatment is associated with significantly increased rates of mortality. We review the antifungal drugs used to treat cryptococcal meningitis with respect to clinical effectiveness and access issues specific to low-income and middle-income countries. Each drug poses unique access challenges: amphotericin B through cost, toxic effects, and insufficiently coordinated distribution; flucytosine through cost and scarcity of registration; and fluconazole through challenges in maintenance of local stocks-eg, sustainability of donations or insufficient generic supplies. We advocate ten steps that need to be taken to improve access to safe and effective antifungal therapy for cryptococcal meningitis.
    The Lancet Infectious Diseases 05/2013; · 19.97 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
8 Downloads
Available from
Jun 5, 2014