Myogenin and the SWI/SNF ATPase Brg1 maintain myogenic gene expression at different stages of skeletal myogenesis
ABSTRACT Many studies have examined transcriptional regulation during the initiation of skeletal muscle differentiation; however, there is less information regarding transcriptional control during adult myogenesis and during the maintenance of the differentiated state. MyoD and the mammalian SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling enzymes containing the Brg1 ATPase are necessary to induce myogenesis in cell culture models and in developing embryonic tissue, whereas myogenin and Brg1 are critical for the expression of the late genes that induce terminal muscle differentiation. Here, we demonstrate that myogenin also binds to its own promoter during the late stages of embryonic muscle development. As is the case during embryonic myogenesis, MyoD and Brg1 co-localize to the myogenin promoter in primary adult muscle satellite cells. However, in mature myofibers, myogenin and Brg1 are preferentially co-localized to the myogenin promoter. Thus, the myogenin promoter is occupied by different myogenic factors at different times of myogenesis. The relevance of myogenin in the continued expression from its own promoter is demonstrated in culture, where we show that myogenin, in the absence of MyoD, is capable of maintaining its own expression by recruiting the Brg1 ATPase to modify promoter chromatin structure and facilitate myogenin expression. Finally, we utilized in vivo electroporation to demonstrate that Brg1 is required for the continued production of the myogenin protein in newborn skeletal muscle tissue. These findings strongly suggest that the skeletal muscle phenotype is maintained by myogenin and the continuous activity of Brg1-based SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling enzymes.
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ABSTRACT: Myogenic terminal differentiation is a well-orchestrated process starting with permanent cell cycle exit followed by muscle-specific genetic program activation. Individual SWI/SNF components have been involved in muscle differentiation. Here, we show that the master myogenic differentiation factor MyoD interacts with more than one SWI/SNF subunit, including the catalytic subunit BRG1, BAF53a and the tumor suppressor BAF47/INI1. Downregulation of each of these SWI/SNF subunits inhibits skeletal muscle terminal differentiation but, interestingly, at different differentiation steps and extents. BAF53a downregulation inhibits myotube formation but not the expression of early muscle-specific genes. BRG1 or BAF47 downregulation disrupt both proliferation and differentiation genetic programs expression. Interestingly, BRG1 and BAF47 are part of the SWI/SNF remodeling complex as well as the N-CoR-1 repressor complex in proliferating myoblasts. However, our data show that, upon myogenic differentiation, BAF47 shifts in favor of N-CoR-1 complex. Finally, BRG1 and BAF47 are well-known tumor suppressors but, strikingly, only BAF47 seems essential in the myoblasts irreversible cell cycle exit. Together, our data unravel differential roles for SWI/SNF subunits in muscle differentiation, with BAF47 playing a dual role both in the permanent cell cycle exit and in the regulation of muscle-specific genes.PLoS ONE 10/2014; 9(10):e108858. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0108858 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: During skeletal muscle differentiation, the activation of some tissue-specific genes occurs immediately while others are delayed. The molecular basis controlling temporal gene regulation is poorly understood. We show that the regulatory sequences, but not other regions of genes expressed at late times of myogenesis, are in close physical proximity in differentiating embryonic tissue and in differentiating culture cells, despite these genes being located on different chromosomes. Formation of these inter-chromosomal interactions requires the lineage-determinant MyoD and functional Brg1, the ATPase subunit of SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling enzymes. Ectopic expression of myogenin and a specific Mef2 isoform induced myogenic differentiation without activating endogenous MyoD expression. Under these conditions, the regulatory sequences of late gene loci were not in close proximity, and these genes were prematurely activated. The data indicate that the spatial organization of late genes contributes to temporal regulation of myogenic transcription by restricting late gene expression during the early stages of myogenesis. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.Nucleic Acids Research 02/2015; 43(4). DOI:10.1093/nar/gkv046 · 8.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background: Among the complexities of skeletal muscle differentiation is a temporal distinction in the onset of expression of different lineage-specific genes. The lineage-determining factor MyoD is bound to myogenic genes at the onset of differentiation whether gene activation is immediate or delayed. How temporal regulation of differentiation-specific genes is established remains unclear. Results: Using embryonic tissue, we addressed the molecular differences in the organization of the myogenin and muscle creatine kinase (MCK) gene promoters by examining regulatory factor binding as a function of both time and spatial organization during somitogenesis. At the myogenin promoter, binding of the homeodomain factor Pbx1 coincided with H3 hyperacetylation and was followed by binding of co-activators that modulate chromatin structure. MyoD and myogenin binding occurred subsequently, demonstrating that Pbx1 facilitates chromatin remodeling and modification prior to myogenic regulatory factor binding. At the same time, the MCK promoter was bound by HDAC2 and MyoD, and activating histone marks were largely absent. The association of HDAC2 and MyoD was confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation, proximity ligation assay (PLA), and sequential ChIP. Conclusion: MyoD differentially promotes activated and repressed chromatin structures at myogenic genes early after the onset of skeletal muscle differentiation in the developing mouse embryo. Developmental Dynamics, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Developmental Dynamics 01/2015; 244(1). DOI:10.1002/dvdy.24217 · 2.67 Impact Factor