Effect of phthiocerol dimycocerosate deficiency on the transcriptional response of human macrophages to Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
ABSTRACT The control of mycobacterial infections is dependent on the finely tuned synergism between the innate and adaptive immune responses. The macrophage is the major host cell for Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the degree of virulence of mycobacteria may influence the initial macrophage response to infection. The cell wall molecule, phthiocerol dimycocerosate (DIM), is an important virulence factor that influences the early growth of M. tuberculosis in the lungs. To explore the basis for this effect we have compared the early gene response of human THP-1 macrophages to infection with virulent M. tuberculosis and the DIM-deficient DeltafadD26 M. tuberculosis strain using microarrays. Detailed analysis revealed a common core of macrophage genes, which were rapidly induced following infection with both strains, and deficiency of DIM had no significant effect on this initial macrophage transcriptional responses. In addition to chemokines and pro-inflammatory cytokines, the early response genes included components of the Toll-like receptor signalling, antigen presentation and apoptotic pathways, interferon response genes, cell surface receptors and their ligands, including TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) and CD40, and other novel genes. Therefore, although fadD26 deficiency is responsible for the early attenuation of the growth of M. tuberculosis in vivo, this effect is not associated with differences in the initial macrophage transcriptional response.
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Article: Analysis of cDNA microarray images.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Microarrays are part of a new class of biotechnologies that allow the monitoring of expression levels for thousands of genes simultaneously. Image analysis is an important aspect of microarray experiments, one that can have a potentially large impact on subsequent analyses, such as clustering or the identification of differentially expressed genes. This paper reviews a number of existing image analysis methods used on cDNA microarray data. In particular, it describes and discusses the different segmentation and background adjustment methods. It was found that in some cases background adjustment can substantially reduce the precision--that is, increase the variability of low-intensity spot values. In contrast, the choice of segmentation procedure seems to have a smaller impact.Briefings in Bioinformatics 01/2002; 2(4):341-9. · 5.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We investigated the changes which occur in gene expression in the human macrophage cell line, THP1, at 1, 6 and 12 hr following infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The analysis was carried out at the transcriptome level, using microarrays consisting of 375 human genes generally thought to be involved in immunoregulation, and at the proteomic level, using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. The analysis of the transcriptome using microarrays revealed that many genes were up-regulated at 6 and 12 hr. Most of these genes encoded proteins involved in cell migration and homing, including the chemokines interleukin (IL)-8, osteopontin, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α), regulated on activation, normal, T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), MIP-1β, MIP-3α, myeloid progenitor inhibitory factor-1 (MPIF-1), pulmonary and activation regulated chemokine (PARC), growth regulated gene-β (GRO-β), GRO-γ, MCP-2, I-309, and the T helper 2 (Th2) and eosinophil-attracting chemokine, eotaxin. Other genes involved in cell migration which were up-regulated included the matrix metalloproteinase MMP-9, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptor Flk-1, the chemokine receptor CCR3, and the cell adhesion molecules vesicular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and integrin a3. In addition to the chemokine response, genes encoding the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β (showing a 433-fold induction), IL-2 and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), were also found to be induced at 6 and/or 12 hr. It was more difficult to detect changes using the proteomic approach. Nevertheless, IL-1β was again shown to be strongly up-regulated. The enzyme manganese superoxide dismutase was also found to be strongly up-regulated; this enzyme was found to be macrophage-, rather than M. tuberculosis, derived. The heat-shock protein hsp27 was found to be down-regulated following infection. We also identified a mycobacterial protein, the product of the atpD gene (thought to be involved in the regulation of cytoplasmic pH) in the infected macrophage extracts.Immunology 08/2001; 104(1):99 - 108. · 3.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) such as TLR2 and TLR4 have been implicated in host response to mycobacterial infection. Here, mice deficient in the TLR adaptor molecule myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) were infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). While primary MyD88(-/-) macrophages and DCs are defective in TNF, IL-12, and NO production in response to mycobacterial stimulation, the upregulation of costimulatory molecules CD40 and CD86 is unaffected. Aerogenic infection of MyD88(-/-) mice with MTB is lethal within 4 weeks with 2 log(10) higher CFU in the lung; high pulmonary levels of cytokines and chemokines; and acute, necrotic pneumonia, despite a normal T cell response with IFN-gamma production to mycobacterial antigens upon ex vivo restimulation. Vaccination with Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin conferred a substantial protection in MyD88(-/-) mice from acute MTB infection. These data demonstrate that MyD88 signaling is dispensable to raise an acquired immune response to MTB. Nonetheless, this acquired immune response is not sufficient to compensate for the profound innate immune defect and the inability of MyD88(-/-) mice to control MTB infection.Journal of Clinical Investigation 01/2005; 114(12):1790-9. · 12.81 Impact Factor