The control of mycobacterial infections is dependent on the finely tuned synergism between the innate and adaptive immune responses. The macrophage is the major host cell for Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the degree of virulence of mycobacteria may influence the initial macrophage response to infection. The cell wall molecule, phthiocerol dimycocerosate (DIM), is an important virulence factor that influences the early growth of M. tuberculosis in the lungs. To explore the basis for this effect we have compared the early gene response of human THP-1 macrophages to infection with virulent M. tuberculosis and the DIM-deficient DeltafadD26 M. tuberculosis strain using microarrays. Detailed analysis revealed a common core of macrophage genes, which were rapidly induced following infection with both strains, and deficiency of DIM had no significant effect on this initial macrophage transcriptional responses. In addition to chemokines and pro-inflammatory cytokines, the early response genes included components of the Toll-like receptor signalling, antigen presentation and apoptotic pathways, interferon response genes, cell surface receptors and their ligands, including TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) and CD40, and other novel genes. Therefore, although fadD26 deficiency is responsible for the early attenuation of the growth of M. tuberculosis in vivo, this effect is not associated with differences in the initial macrophage transcriptional response.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), infects approximately 8 million annually culminating in approximately 2 million deaths. Moreover, about one third of the population is latently infected, 10% of which develop disease during lifetime. Current approved prophylactic TB vaccines (BCG and derivatives thereof) are of variable efficiency in adult protection against pulmonary TB (0%-80%), and directed essentially against early phase infection.
A genome-scale dataset was constructed by analyzing published data of: (1) global gene expression studies under conditions which simulate intra-macrophage stress, dormancy, persistence and/or reactivation; (2) cellular and humoral immunity, and vaccine potential. This information was compiled along with revised annotation/bioinformatic characterization of selected gene products and in silico mapping of T-cell epitopes. Protocols for scoring, ranking and prioritization of the antigens were developed and applied.
Cross-matching of literature and in silico-derived data, in conjunction with the prioritization scheme and biological rationale, allowed for selection of 189 putative vaccine candidates from the entire genome. Within the 189 set, the relative distribution of antigens in 3 functional categories differs significantly from their distribution in the whole genome, with reduction in the Conserved hypothetical category (due to improved annotation) and enrichment in Lipid and in Virulence categories. Other prominent representatives in the 189 set are the PE/PPE proteins; iron sequestration, nitroreductases and proteases, all within the Intermediary metabolism and respiration category; ESX secretion systems, resuscitation promoting factors and lipoproteins, all within the Cell wall category. Application of a ranking scheme based on qualitative and quantitative scores, resulted in a list of 45 best-scoring antigens, of which: 74% belong to the dormancy/reactivation/resuscitation classes; 30% belong to the Cell wall category; 13% are classical vaccine candidates; 9% are categorized Conserved hypotheticals, all potentially very potent T-cell antigens.
The comprehensive literature and in silico-based analyses allowed for the selection of a repertoire of 189 vaccine candidates, out of the whole-genome 3989 ORF products. This repertoire, which was ranked to generate a list of 45 top-hits antigens, is a platform for selection of genes covering all stages of M. tuberculosis infection, to be incorporated in rBCG or subunit-based vaccines.
BMC Medical Genomics 02/2008; 1(1):18. DOI:10.1186/1755-8794-1-18 · 2.87 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The resurgence of tuberculosis worldwide has closely mirrored the HIV pandemic. In regions like sub-Saharan Africa, a large proportion of individuals are co-infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and HIV. Macrophages are the reservoir host cells for both pathogens, however the interactions between both pathogens in co-infected cells remain poorly understood. Thus, the global gene responses of primary human macrophages following productive co-infection with highly purified HIV and M. tuberculosis were analyzed using cDNA microarrays. A broad range of genes was up-regulated in response to co-infection or M. tuberculosis infection of primary macrophages, including those encoding pro-inflammatory chemokines and cytokines, their receptors, signalling associated genes, type I IFN signalling genes and genes of the tryptophan degradation pathway. Real-time RT-PCR analysis confirmed up-regulation of a wide variety of genes including indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase and Sp110 in M. tuberculosis and co-infected samples. Downstream analysis confirmed significant elevation of the chemokines CCL3, CCL4 and CCL8 in M. tuberculosis and co-infected culture supernatants. In contrast, the changes seen in gene expression following HIV infection alone were fewer in number and significantly less in magnitude. Thus, the effects of M. tuberculosis infection on global gene expression dominated the effects of HIV-1 in co-infected primary human macrophages.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Latent tuberculosis represents a high-risk burden for one-third of the world population. Previous analysis of murine tuberculosis identified a novel transcriptional regulator encoded by Rv0348 that could control the establishment of persistent tuberculosis. Disruption of the Rv0348 gene from the genome of the virulent H37Rv strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis revealed a global impact on the transcriptional profiles of 163 genes, including induction of the mammalian cell entry (mce1) operon and the repression of a significant number of genes involved in hypoxia and starvation responses. Nonetheless, gel shift assays did not reveal direct binding between Rv0348 and a set of regulated promoters, suggesting an indirect regulatory role. However, when expressed in Mycobacterium smegmatis, the Rv0348 transcripts were significantly responsive to different levels of hypoxia and the encoded protein was shown to regulate genes involved in hypoxia [e.g., Rv3130c (tgs1)] and intracellular survival (e.g., mce1), among other genes. Interestingly, the colonization level of the DeltamosR mutant strain was significantly lower than that of the wild-type strain of M. tuberculosis, suggesting its attenuation in the murine model of tuberculosis. Taken together, our analyses indicated that the Rv0348 gene encodes a novel transcriptional factor that regulates several operons involved in mycobacterial survival, especially during hypoxia; hence, we propose that Rv0348 be renamed mosR for regulator of mycobacterial operons of survival.
Journal of bacteriology 08/2009; 191(19):5941-52. DOI:10.1128/JB.00778-09 · 2.81 Impact Factor
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