The mammalian lifespan is dramatically extended by both caloric restriction (CR) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) suppression. Both interventions involve neuroendocrine alterations directed by the hypothalamus. Yet, it remains unclear whether CR exerts its affects by altering central IGF-1 sensitivity. With this question in mind, we investigated the influence of CR and normal aging on hypothalamic IGF-1 sensitivity, by measuring the changes in IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) populations. Taking IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) immunoreactivity as an index of sensitivity to IGF-1, we counted IGF-1R immunoreactive and non-immunoreactive cells in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of Young-ad libitum fed (Young-Al, 6 weeks old), Old-ad libitum fed (Old-Al, 22 months old), and old calorically restricted (Old-CR, 22 months old) female B6D2F1 mice. An automated imaging microscopy system (AIMS) was used to generate cell counts for each cross-section of PVN hypothalamus. Ad libitum fed mice show a 37% reduction in IGF-1R immunoreactive cells and a 12% reduction in the total cell population of the PVN with aging. In comparison, caloric-restricted mice show a 33% reduction in IGF-1R immunoreactive cells and a notable 24% decrease in the total cell population with aging. This selective maintenance of IGF-1R expressing cells coupled with the simultaneous loss of non-immunoreactive cells, results in a higher percentage of IGF-1R immunoreactive cells in the PVNs of CR mice. Thus, the decline in the percentage of IGF-1 sensitive cells in the PVN with age is attenuated by CR.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Development of electrochemical DNA hybridization biosensors based on carbon paste electrode (CPE) and gold nanoparticle modified carbon paste electrode (NGMCPE) as transducers and ethyl green (EG) as a new electroactive label is described. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry techniques were applied for the investigation and comparison of bare CPE and NGMCPE surfaces. Our voltammetric and spectroscopic studies showed gold nanoparticles are enable to facilitate electron transfer between the accumulated label on DNA probe modified electrode and electrode surface and enhance the electrical signals and lead to an improved detection limit. The immobilization of a 15-mer single strand oligonucleotide probe on the working electrodes and hybridization event between the probe and its complementary sequence as a target were investigated by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) responses of the EG accumulated on the electrodes. The effects of some experimental variables on the performance of the biosensors were investigated and optimum conditions were suggested. The selectivity of the biosensors was studied using some non-complementary oligonucleotides. Finally the detection limits were calculated as 1.35×10−10 mol/L and 5.16×10−11 mol/L on the CPE and NEGCPE, respectively. In addition, the biosensors exhibited a good selectivity, reproducibility and stability for the determination of DNA sequences.
Chinese Journal of Chemistry 11/2011; 29(11). DOI:10.1002/cjoc.201180427 · 1.58 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives
To examine the prevalence of the Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I receptor (IGF-IR) 275124A > C polymorphism, known to be associated with exercise-related cardiac hypertrophy, among elite endurance and power athletes. Design and methods: We hypothesized that presence of the A allele will be significantly more common among endurance athletes (n = 77) compared to power athletes (n = 82) and non-physically active controls (n = 68). Athletes within each group were further divided according to their individual best performance into elite athletes (those who had represented the country in international track-and-field or triathlon competitions or in the Olympic Games) and national-level athletes. Results: The prevalence of the AA genotype was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the endurance athletes group (49%) compared to the power athletes group (33%), but did not differ from the control group (46%). There was no significant difference in the prevalence of the AA genotype between elite and national level endurance athletes (44% versus 52%, respectively). In contrast, among power athletes, the prevalence of the AA genotype was significantly lower among elite compared to national level athletes (17% versus 42%, respectively; p < 0.05). Conclusions: The results of the present study may suggest that the IGF-IR AA polymorphism is beneficial for endurance-type sports, but is not associated with elite endurance performance. In contrast, the presence of the AA genotype may be a disadvantage in power sports. All together the results of the present study suggest that IGF-IR polymorphism may differentiate between the two edges of the endurance-power athletic performance spectrum.
03/2014; 18(3). DOI:10.1016/j.jsams.2014.03.007
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