Alanine racemase from Helicobacter pylori NCTC 11637: purification, characterization and gene cloning.
ABSTRACT The Helicobacter pylori NCTC 11637 alanine racemase gene, alr1, was cloned based on a putative alanine racemase gene, alr, of H. pylori 26695. The protein, Alr1, was purified to homogeneity from Escherichia coli MB2795 cells harboring the alr1 gene. The protein exclusively catalyzes the conversion of l-alanine to the d-isomer with K(m) and V(max) values of 100 mM and 909 mumol min(-1) mg(-1), respectively. The values are 16-fold higher than those for the reaction in the reverse direction. The molecular weight of Alr1 is 42,000 by SDS-PAGE, and 68,000 by gel-filtration analysis. The optimal pH and temperature are pH 8.3 and 37 degrees C, respectively, in good accordance with the characteristics shown by the alanine racemase purified from H. pylori NCTC 11637 cells. Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate was suggested to be the cofactor. The physiological function of Alr1 is discussed regarding energy production in the microbial cells.
Article: Biochemical characterization of alanine racemase--a spore protein produced by Bacillus anthracis.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Alanine racemase catalyzes the interconversion of L-alanine and D-alanine and plays a crucial role in spore germination and cell wall biosynthesis. In this study, alanine racemase produced by Bacillus anthracis was expressed and purified as a monomer in Escherichia coli and the importance of lysine 41 in the cofactor binding octapeptide and tyrosine 270 in catalysis was evaluated. The native enzyme exhibited an apparent K(m) of 3 mM for L-alanine, and a V(max) of 295 micromoles/min/mg, with the optimum activity occurring at 37 degrees C and a pH of 8-9. The activity observed in the absence of exogenous pyridoxal 5'-phosphate suggested that the cofactor is bound to the enzyme. Additionally, the UV-visible absorption spectra indicated that the activity was pH independece, of VV-visible absorption spectra suggests that the bound PLP exists as a protonated Schiff's base. Furthermore, the loss of activity observed in the apoenzyme suggested that bound PLP is required for catalysis. Finally, the enzyme followed non-competitive and mixed inhibition kinetics for hydroxylamine and propionate with a K(i) of 160 microM and 30 mM, respectively. [BMB reports 2009; 42(1): 47-52].BMB reports 02/2009; 42(1):47-52. · 1.72 Impact Factor