The cost of uncomplicated childhood fevers to Kenyan households: implications for reaching international access targets
ABSTRACT Fever is the clinical hallmark of malaria disease. The Roll Back Malaria (RBM) movement promotes prompt, effective treatment of childhood fevers as a key component to achieving its optimistic mortality reduction goals by 2010. A neglected concern is how communities will access these new medicines promptly and the costs to poor households when they are located in rural areas distant to health services.
We assemble data developed between 2001 and 2002 in Kenya to describe treatment choices made by rural households to treat a child's fever and the related costs to households. Using a cost-of-illness approach, we estimate the expected cost of a childhood fever to Kenyan households in 2002. We develop two scenarios to explore how expected costs to households would change if more children were treated at a health care facility with an effective antimalarial within 48 hours of fever onset.
30% of uncomplicated fevers were managed at home with modern medicines, 38% were taken to a health care facility (HCF), and 32% were managed at home without the use of modern medicines. Direct household cash expenditures were estimated at $0.44 per fever, while the total expected cost to households (cash and time) of an uncomplicated childhood fever is estimated to be $1.91. An estimated mean of 1.42 days of caretaker time devoted to each fever accounts for the majority of household costs of managing fevers. The aggregate cost to Kenyan households of managing uncomplicated childhood fevers was at least $96 million in 2002, equivalent to 1.00% of the Kenyan GDP. Fewer than 8% of all fevers were treated with an antimalarial drug within 24 hours of fever onset, while 17.5% were treated within 48 hours at a HCF. To achieve an increase from 17.5% to 33% of fevers treated with an antimalarial drug within 48 hours at a HCF (Scenario 1), children already being taken to a HCF would need to be taken earlier. Under this scenario, direct cash expenditures would not change, and total household costs would fall slightly to $1.86 because caretakers also save time with prompt treatment if the child has malaria.
The management of uncomplicated childhood fevers imposes substantial costs on Kenyan households. Achieving substantial improvements in the numbers of fevers treated within 48 hours at a HCF with an effective antimalarial drug (Scenario 1) will not impose additional costs on households. Achieving additional improvements in fevers treated promptly at a HCF (Scenario 2) will impose additional costs on some households roughly equal to average cash expenses for transportation to a HCF. Additional financing mechanisms that further reduce the costs of accessing care at a HCF and/or that make artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) accessible for home management need to be developed and evaluated as a top priority.
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ABSTRACT: Folic acid and iron supplementation has historically been recommended as the preferred anaemia control strategy among preschoolers in sub-Saharan Africa and other resource-poor settings, but home fortification of complementary foods with multiple micronutrient powders (MNPs) can now be considered the preferred approach. The World Health Organization endorses home fortification with MNPs containing at least iron, vitamin A and zinc to control childhood anaemia, and calls for concomitant malaria control strategies in malaria endemic regions. Among other micronutrients, current MNP formulations generally include 88 μg folic acid (corresponding to 100% of the Recommended Nutrient Intake). The risks and benefits of providing supplemental folic acid at these levels are unclear. The limited data available indicate that folate deficiency may not be a major public health problem among children living in sub-Saharan Africa and supplemental folic acid may therefore not have any benefits. Furthermore, supraphysiological, and possibly even physiological, folic acid dosages may favour Plasmodium falciparum growth, inhibit parasite clearance of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP)-treated malaria and increase subsequent recrudescence. Even though programmatic options to limit prophylactic SP use or to promote the use of insecticide treated bed nets may render the use of folic acid safer, programmatic barriers to these approaches are likely to persist. Research is needed to characterise the prevalence of folate deficiency among young children worldwide and to design safe MNP and other types of fortification approaches in sub-Sahara Africa. In parallel, updated global guidance is needed for MNP programmes in these regions.Maternal and Child Nutrition 11/2013; DOI:10.1111/mcn.12102 · 2.97 Impact Factor
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