Olanzapine versus risperidone in the treatment of manic or mixed States in bipolar I disorder: a randomized, double-blind trial.
ABSTRACT To compare olanzapine and risperidone in the treatment of nonpsychotic acute manic or mixed episodes.
This 3-week, randomized, controlled, double-blind, parallel multicenter study compared olanzapine (5-20 mg/day; N = 165) and risperidone (1-6 mg/day; N = 164) among hospital inpatients who met DSM-IV criteria for bipolar I disorder, manic or mixed episode, without psychotic features. The study was conducted at 30 sites in the United States between July 2001 and June 2002. The primary outcome measure was the mean change in the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) total score. Secondary measures included the 21-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D-21), the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), the Clinical Global Impressions-Bipolar Version (CGI-BP) severity of illness scale, and the Cognitive Test for Delirium (CTD). Quality of life (Short Form Health Survey [SF-12]), psychological well-being (Psychological General Well-Being [PGWB] inventory), and sexual functioning were also compared.
Mean modal doses for olanzapine and risperidone were 14.7 mg/day and 3.9 mg/day, respectively. Between treatments, there was no difference in mean change in the YMRS, MADRS, CTD, PGWB, or SF-12 measures or in remission or response rates. Significantly more olanzapine-treated patients completed the study compared with risperidone patients (78.7% vs. 67.0%; p = .019). Olanzapine-treated patients had greater HAM-D-21 (p = .040) and CGI-BP (p = .026) score improvement across the study. Olanzapine-treated patients experienced greater elevations in liver function enzymes (p < .05) and increase in weight (2.5 kg vs. 1.6 kg; p = .004), while risperidone-treated patients were more likely to experience prolactin elevation (51.73 ng/mL vs. 8.23 ng/mL; p < .001) and sexual dysfunction (total score increase of 1.75 vs. 0.64; p = .049).
Both olanzapine and risperidone treatment yielded similar improvements in mania. The olanzapine group had significantly greater improvements in secondary measures of severity and depressive symptoms and better study completion rates but experienced more weight gain.
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ABSTRACT: Antipsychotics have been widely used in the treatment of bipolar mania. The purpose of this manuscript was to briefly review the evidence of typical and atypical antipsychotics for the treatment of bipolar mania. A detailed literature review was conducted on the use of typical and atypical antipsychotics in the treatment of bipolar mania using standard search engines. A summary of the published literature on each agent is described followed by a discussion on the overall comparison of the different agents. For typical antipsychotics, up until recently, there was a paucity of published evidence on their strengths and limitations in the treatment of bipolar mania. Recent studies have demonstrated clear evidence on the efficacy of haloperidol on the treatment of acute mania. The literature suggests a faster onset of action of haloperidol as compared to either lithium or atypical antipsychotics. A limitation of typical antipsychotics however, is the risk of tardive dyskinesia, extrapyramidal side effects and a possible increased risk of non-adherence. Evidence on the efficacy for atypical antipsychotics has been demonstrated for aripiprazole, clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone and ziprasidone. Limitations as regards the use of atypical antipsychotics include the risk of weight gain and dyslipidemia. Comparison among different atypical antipsychotics agents are difficult to determine as there are no conclusive head to head studies. There is also a paucity of studies comparing atypical antipsychotics with lithium. Evidence exists on the efficacy of both typical and atypical antipsychotics on the treatment of acute mania such that they are now clearly first-line along with lithium. An important limitation of the published literature is that most of the studies were designed to obtain regulatory approval for the different agents therefore the generalizability of the findings to clinical practice remains unclear.Bipolar Disorders 07/2009; 11 Suppl 2:45-54. DOI:10.1111/j.1399-5618.2009.00710.x · 4.89 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: These updated guidelines are based on a first edition that was published in 2003, and have been edited and updated with the available scientific evidence until end of 2008. Their purpose is to supply a systematic overview of all scientific evidence pertaining to the treatment of acute mania in adults. The data used for these guidelines have been extracted from a MEDLINE and EMBASE search, from the clinical trial database clinicaltrials.gov, from recent proceedings of key conferences, and from various national and international treatment guidelines. Their scientific rigor was categorised into six levels of evidence (A-F). As these guidelines are intended for clinical use, the scientific evidence was finally asigned different grades of recommendation to ensure practicability.The World Journal of Biological Psychiatry 05/2009; 10(2):85-116. DOI:10.1080/15622970902823202 · 4.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This paper is a systematic review of the available data concerning the treatment of bipolar disorder: a systematic Medline search concerning treatment guidelines and clinical trials. The search for treatment guidelines returned 583 articles and 913 papers for RCTs. The search was last performed on 1 March 2008. An additional search included repositories of clinical trials and previous systematic reviews in order to trace especially older trials. The literature suggests that lithium is useful during the acute manic and the maintenance phase. Both first- and second-generation antipsychotics are efficacious in the treatment of acute mania. Quetiapine and the olanzapine-fluoxetine combination are also effective for treating bipolar depression, while olanzapine, quetiapine and aripiprazole are effective during the maintenance phase. Anticonvulsants, particularly valproate and carbamazepine have antimanic properties, whereas lamotrigine may be preferably effective in the treatment of depression but not mania. Antidepressants should always be used in combination with an antimanic agent because they were reported to induce switching to mania or hypomania, mixed episodes, and rapid cycling when given as monotherapy. The best evidence-based psychosocial interventions for bipolar disorder are group- and family-focused psychoeducation. Electroconvulsive therapy is an option for refractory patients. Although a variety of treatment options for bipolar disorder is currently available, their effectiveness is far from satisfactory, especially against bipolar depression and maintenance. Combination therapy may improve treatment outcome but it also carries the burden of more side-effects. Further research as well as the development of better guidelines and algorithms for step-by-step rational treatment are necessary.The International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology 09/2008; 11(7):999-1029. DOI:10.1017/S1461145708009231 · 5.26 Impact Factor