What clinical and symptom features and comorbid disorders characterize outpatients with anxious major depressive disorder: a replication and extension.
ABSTRACT We previously found that 46% of the first 1450 outpatients with depression participating in the multicentre Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) project qualified for the designation of anxious depression. This study was designed to replicate and extend our initial findings in a subsequent, larger cohort of outpatient STAR*D participants with nonpsychotic major depressive disorder (MDD).
Baseline clinical and sociodemographic data were collected on 2337 consecutive STAR*D participants. A baseline 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale Anxiety-Somatization factor score of 7 or higher was designated as anxious depression. We identified concurrent Axis I disorders with the Psychiatric Diagnostic Screening Questionnaire (PDSQ), using a 90% specificity threshold. Depressive symptoms were assessed by clinical telephone interview with the 30-item Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-Clinician-Rated (IDS-C30).
The prevalence of anxious depression in this population was 45.1%. Patients with anxious MDD were significantly more likely to be in primary care settings and to be women, nonsingle, unemployed, Hispanic, less educated, and suffering from severe depression, both before and after adjustment for overall depression severity. Patients with anxious depression were significantly more likely to meet PDSQ thresholds for generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, agoraphobia, hypochondriasis, and somatoform disorder, both before and after adjusting for baseline depression severity. Individuals with anxious depression were also significantly less likely to endorse IDS-C30 items concerning atypical features and were significantly more likely to endorse items concerning melancholic-endogenous depression features, both before and after adjusting for baseline depression severity.
This study clearly replicates our previous STAR*D findings and supports the notion that anxious depression may be a valid diagnostic subtype of MDD, with distinct psychiatric comorbidities and clinical and sociodemographic features.
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ABSTRACT: Chronic pain is commonly co-morbid with a depressive or anxiety disorder. Objective of this study is to examine the influence of depression, along with anxiety, on pain-related disability, pain intensity, and pain location in a large sample of adults with and without a depressive and/or anxiety disorder. The study population consisted of 2981 participants with a depressive, anxiety, co-morbid depressive and anxiety disorder, remitted disorder or no current disorder (controls). Severity of depressive and anxiety symptoms was also assessed. In separate multinomial regression analyses, the association of presence of depressive or anxiety disorders and symptom severity with the Chronic Pain Grade and location of pain was explored. Presence of a depressive (OR = 6.67; P<.001), anxiety (OR = 4.84; P<.001), or co-morbid depressive and anxiety disorder (OR = 30.26; P<.001) was associated with the Chronic Pain Grade. Moreover, symptom severity was associated with more disabling and severely limiting pain. Also, a remitted depressive or anxiety disorder showed more disabling and severely limiting pain (OR = 3.53; P<.001) as compared to controls. A current anxiety disorder (OR = 2.96; p<.001) and a co-morbid depressive and anxiety disorder (OR = 5.15; P<.001) were more strongly associated with cardio-respiratory pain, than gastro-intestinal or musculoskeletal pain. These findings remain after adjustment for chronic cardio respiratory illness. Patients with a current and remitted depressive and/or anxiety disorder and those with more severe symptoms have more disabling pain and pain of cardio-respiratory nature, than persons without a depressive or anxiety disorder. This warrants further research.PLoS ONE 10/2014; 9(10):e106907. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of depression relief and pain relief on the improvement in daily functioning and quality of life (QOL) for depressed patients receiving a 6-week treatment of fluoxetine. A total of 131 acutely ill inpatients with major depressive disorder (MDD) were enrolled to receive 20mg of fluoxetine daily for 6weeks. Depression severity, pain severity, daily functioning, and health-related QOL were assessed at baseline and again at week 6. Depression severity, pain severity, and daily functioning were assessed using the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, the Short-Form 36 (SF-36) Body Pain Index, and the Work and Social Adjustment Scale. Health-related QOL was assessed by three primary domains of the SF-36, including social functioning, vitality, and general health perceptions. Pearson's correlation and structural equation modeling were used to examine relationships among the study variables. Five models were proposed. In model 1, depression relief alone improved daily functioning and QOL. In model 2, pain relief alone improved daily functioning and QOL. In model 3, depression relief, mediated by pain relief, improved daily functioning and QOL. In model 4, pain relief, mediated by depression relief, improved daily functioning and QOL. In model 5, both depression relief and pain relief improved daily functioning and QOL. One hundred and six patients completed all the measures at baseline and at week 6. Model 5 was the most fitted structural equation model (χ(2)=8.62, df=8, p=0.376, GFI=0.975, AGFI=0.935, TLI=0.992, CFI=0.996, RMSEA=0.027). Interventions which relieve depression and pain improve daily functioning and QOL among patients with MDD. The proposed model can provide quantitative estimates of improvement in treating patients with MDD.Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 08/2013; · 4.03 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objective: To assess clinically relevant symptom improvement in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) receiving vilazodone by using the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), a clinician-rated scale used to measure MDD symptom severity and improvement. Method: Pooled data from 2 positive, phase 3, 8-week, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials in patients with MDD were analyzed. Patients received vilazodone 40 mg/d or placebo; post hoc analyses were conducted on study completers. Depression symptom improvement was evaluated by analyzing the proportions of patients who shifted from the baseline MADRS single-item symptom severity category of ≥ 2 (mild to severe symptoms) to an end-of-study category < 2 (minimal to no symptoms) or from ≥ 4 (moderate to severe symptoms) to ≤ 2 (mild to no symptoms). The proportion of patients who shifted from anxious depression to no anxious depression was also analyzed. Results: The percentage of patients who completed these studies with severity category shift from baseline ≥ 2 to end of study < 2 was significantly higher for vilazodone versus placebo on all MADRS items (odds ratio [OR] range, 1.4-1.7, P < .05) except reduced appetite (OR = 1.3, P = .232). A significantly greater proportion of vilazodone-treated versus placebo-treated patients shifted from baseline ≥ 4 to end of study ≤ 2 on MADRS items of apparent sadness, reported sadness, inner tension, reduced sleep, and lassitude (OR range, 1.5-2.0, P < .05). Additionally, a significantly greater proportion of vilazodone-treated versus placebo-treated patients shifted from anxious depression at baseline to no anxious depression at end of study (OR = 1.5, P = .031). Conclusions: These results suggest that vilazodone treatment is associated with clinically relevant changes in depression symptoms in patients with MDD. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifiers: NCT00285376 and NCT00683592.The primary care companion to CNS disorders. 01/2014; 16(1).