Comparison of the intakes of sugars by young children with and without dental caries experience
ABSTRACT Relationships among sugars and dental caries in contemporary societies are unclear. The authors describe young children's intakes of nonmilk extrinsic (NME) and intrinsic/milk sugars and relate those intakes to dental caries.
The authors conducted cross-sectional analyses of dietary data collected from the Iowa Fluoride Study using three-day diaries for subjects at ages 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 years and for subjects aged 1 through 5 years according to dental caries experience at 4.5 to 6.9 years of age. They categorized foods and beverages as containing NME or intrinsic/milk sugars.
Subjects' total, NME, food NME and intrinsic/milk sugars intakes at ages studied did not differ between subjects with and without caries experience. Beverage NME sugars intakes at age 3 years predicted caries (P < .05) in logistic regression models adjusted for age at dental examination and for fluoride intake.
Dental caries is a complex, multifactorial disease process dependent on the presence of oral bacteria, a fermentable carbohydrate substrate and host enamel. A simple NME-intrinsic/milk sugars categorization appears insufficient to capture the complex dietary component of the caries process.
Cariogenicity is more likely a function of the food and/or beverage vehicle delivering the sugar and the nature of exposure-that is, frequency and length of eating events-than of the sugar's categorization.
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ABSTRACT: Dental caries results from a complex interaction between the host and environmental factors and it is an important public health issue. To determine the prevalence of dental caries in a school population of six and 12 years old children from Leiria; to establish a relationship between dental caries and related known risk factors; parental dental health care, parental control of their children oral hygiene and to compare our results with the National Dental Care Study of 1999. Descriptive and statistical analysis based on a questionnaire and dental examination. In our sample of 248 children, 43% were six years old and 57% 12 years old; 52% were female and 72% reside in a suburban area. The prevalence of dental caries was 42% (48% for the six year and 33% for the 12 years old groups. Dental caries were more prevalent in males (p = 0, 01) and 25% of these had three or more caries. Analysis of the questionnaire revealed that 87% of children brushed their teeth daily, findings that were unrelated to gender, age or residential area. Of this group, 68% brushed their teeth twice or more daily (p = 0,008). This routine was commenced in 32% of children prior to the age of three and these had less dental caries (p = 0,022). With regard to the children's dietary habits, we found them to be similar in both groups. The children who did not sweeten their milk (23 and 24% of the six and 12 years group, respectively) had fewer dental caries (p = 0,031). Dental treatment was required in 53% of 12 year old group and in 41% of six year old group. Dental caries was also less prevalent in children who also had taken fluoride (p = 0,045). We found a significant statistical relationship between parental and their children's dietary habits (p = 0,000). Parents who brushed their teeth twice daily had children with similar oral hygiene habits and had fewer caries (p = 0,002). Parents who oversee their children's dental care (52%) include the group of parents and children that brush their teeth at least twice daily (p = 0,003). Dental caries was more prevalent in the six year old group with a male predominance. Children who brushed their teeth twice a day had less caries and the 12 year old group had more visits to the dentist. To ensure adequate oral hygiene habits it is important that parents supervise their children' habits.Acta medica portuguesa 01/2008; 21(5):467-74. · 0.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Methamphetamine users are reported to have marginal dietary habits and high caries rates. The authors compared retrospective dietary patterns, oral hygiene behaviors and current oral health status of methamphetamine users and nonusers in a pilot study. Eighteen adults with a history of methamphetamine use (methamphetamine users) and 18 age- and sex-matched control subjects (nonusers) completed retrospective questionnaires concerning meal patterns, food group intakes, beverage habits, oral hygiene behaviors, smoking behaviors and drug use. The authors performed oral examinations to identify the number of remaining teeth, the number of teeth with obvious decay and presence of visible plaque. Methamphetamine users were more likely to snack without eating defined meals (P = .026), consume regular soda pop (that is, carbonated beverage with sugar) (P = .018), never brush their teeth (P < .001) and smoke (P < .001) than were nonusers. Users had more visible plaque (P < .001), fewer molars (P = .001) and more decay on anterior teeth (P < .001), premolars (P < .001) and molars (P < .001) than did nonusers. The results of this pilot study are consistent with anecdotal reports; methamphetamine users have more gross caries than do nonusers. Marginal dietary and oral hygiene behaviors associated with methamphetamine use likely increase caries risk. Patients at risk or suspected of using methamphetamine require detailed oral hygiene instruction and extensive dietary counseling.Journal of the American Dental Association (1939) 02/2008; 139(2):171-6. DOI:10.14219/jada.archive.2008.0133 · 2.24 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The biofilm concept of dental plaque now is widely accepted in the dental clinic, particularly with respect to its importance to oral hygiene. A number of reviews have focused on the microbial ecology of biofilm with regard to oral health; however, there has been less focus on how the interaction of biofilms and hydrodynamics with mass transfer (the movement of molecules and particulates) and physiological processes may relate to caries. The authors reviewed reports in the microbiology and dental literature addressing microbiological, engineering and clinical aspects of biofilms with respect to mass transport and microbial physiology, with an emphasis on fluoride ions (F(-)). and Practical Implications. These data illustrate how dental plaque biofilms may affect the delivery of cariogenic agents, such as sucrose, or anticariogenic agents, such as F(-), into and out of the biofilm, with subsequent consequences for the development of physio-chemical microenvironments at the tooth surface. Increasing the flow rate in an overlying fluid (such as saliva or mouthrinse) increases transport from the fluid into and through biofilms. Increasing the delivery of anticariogenic agents such as F(-) into the plaque biofilm, by generating strong fluid flows, may be a useful strategy for enhancing the anticaries effects of F(-) in areas of the mouth where complete biofilm removal is not possible with routine daily cleaning techniques.Journal of the American Dental Association (1939) 10/2008; 139(9):1182-90. DOI:10.14219/jada.archive.2008.0333 · 2.24 Impact Factor