Relationships among sugars and dental caries in contemporary societies are unclear. The authors describe young children's intakes of nonmilk extrinsic (NME) and intrinsic/milk sugars and relate those intakes to dental caries.
The authors conducted cross-sectional analyses of dietary data collected from the Iowa Fluoride Study using three-day diaries for subjects at ages 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 years and for subjects aged 1 through 5 years according to dental caries experience at 4.5 to 6.9 years of age. They categorized foods and beverages as containing NME or intrinsic/milk sugars.
Subjects' total, NME, food NME and intrinsic/milk sugars intakes at ages studied did not differ between subjects with and without caries experience. Beverage NME sugars intakes at age 3 years predicted caries (P < .05) in logistic regression models adjusted for age at dental examination and for fluoride intake.
Dental caries is a complex, multifactorial disease process dependent on the presence of oral bacteria, a fermentable carbohydrate substrate and host enamel. A simple NME-intrinsic/milk sugars categorization appears insufficient to capture the complex dietary component of the caries process.
Cariogenicity is more likely a function of the food and/or beverage vehicle delivering the sugar and the nature of exposure-that is, frequency and length of eating events-than of the sugar's categorization.
"This reduces the chances of dental caries and helps the parents to brush their child's teeth prior going to bed. It is found helpful in breaking the habit of using a feeding bottle which is usually advocated for children up to 12 months of age (Marshall et al., 2007). Most of the mothers preferred to continue breastfeeding from twelve to twenty four months of child age while only few mothers stopped breastfeeding after six months. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of early childhood caries (ECC) and factors leading to it among 71 months of age children or younger in Karachi, Pakistan. ECC is a preventable chronic disease affecting infants and children worldwide. The early detection of ECC can reduce pain and life threatening conditions and help growth and development of infant and children. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Karachi, Pakistan. About 650 mothers of children (71 months of age or younger) were randomly selected and interviewed using a pretested semi-structured questionnaire. The dental examination was performed by the dentist, who was calibrated against a standard examiner using World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. The data was entered and analysed using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 16 software. ECC was found in 23.5% of children with mean decayed missing and filled teeth (dmft) of 0.67. The factors identified were age of the child, mother educational and occupational status, sweetened drink consumption at night and not utilizing routine dental health care services. This study concluded that high proportion of ECC was found among children (71 months of age children or younger) and factors identified were all preventable and needs attention to promote dental health education and routine dental visits.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dental caries results from a complex interaction between the host and environmental factors and it is an important public health issue.
To determine the prevalence of dental caries in a school population of six and 12 years old children from Leiria; to establish a relationship between dental caries and related known risk factors; parental dental health care, parental control of their children oral hygiene and to compare our results with the National Dental Care Study of 1999.
Descriptive and statistical analysis based on a questionnaire and dental examination.
In our sample of 248 children, 43% were six years old and 57% 12 years old; 52% were female and 72% reside in a suburban area. The prevalence of dental caries was 42% (48% for the six year and 33% for the 12 years old groups. Dental caries were more prevalent in males (p = 0, 01) and 25% of these had three or more caries. Analysis of the questionnaire revealed that 87% of children brushed their teeth daily, findings that were unrelated to gender, age or residential area. Of this group, 68% brushed their teeth twice or more daily (p = 0,008). This routine was commenced in 32% of children prior to the age of three and these had less dental caries (p = 0,022). With regard to the children's dietary habits, we found them to be similar in both groups. The children who did not sweeten their milk (23 and 24% of the six and 12 years group, respectively) had fewer dental caries (p = 0,031). Dental treatment was required in 53% of 12 year old group and in 41% of six year old group. Dental caries was also less prevalent in children who also had taken fluoride (p = 0,045). We found a significant statistical relationship between parental and their children's dietary habits (p = 0,000). Parents who brushed their teeth twice daily had children with similar oral hygiene habits and had fewer caries (p = 0,002). Parents who oversee their children's dental care (52%) include the group of parents and children that brush their teeth at least twice daily (p = 0,003).
Dental caries was more prevalent in the six year old group with a male predominance. Children who brushed their teeth twice a day had less caries and the 12 year old group had more visits to the dentist. To ensure adequate oral hygiene habits it is important that parents supervise their children' habits.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Methamphetamine users are reported to have marginal dietary habits and high caries rates. The authors compared retrospective dietary patterns, oral hygiene behaviors and current oral health status of methamphetamine users and nonusers in a pilot study.
Eighteen adults with a history of methamphetamine use (methamphetamine users) and 18 age- and sex-matched control subjects (nonusers) completed retrospective questionnaires concerning meal patterns, food group intakes, beverage habits, oral hygiene behaviors, smoking behaviors and drug use. The authors performed oral examinations to identify the number of remaining teeth, the number of teeth with obvious decay and presence of visible plaque.
Methamphetamine users were more likely to snack without eating defined meals (P = .026), consume regular soda pop (that is, carbonated beverage with sugar) (P = .018), never brush their teeth (P < .001) and smoke (P < .001) than were nonusers. Users had more visible plaque (P < .001), fewer molars (P = .001) and more decay on anterior teeth (P < .001), premolars (P < .001) and molars (P < .001) than did nonusers.
The results of this pilot study are consistent with anecdotal reports; methamphetamine users have more gross caries than do nonusers. Marginal dietary and oral hygiene behaviors associated with methamphetamine use likely increase caries risk.
Patients at risk or suspected of using methamphetamine require detailed oral hygiene instruction and extensive dietary counseling.
Journal of the American Dental Association (1939) 02/2008; 139(2):171-6. DOI:10.14219/jada.archive.2008.0133 · 2.01 Impact Factor
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