To determine and compare the influence of 2 different approaches on quadriceps femoris muscle function in total knee arthroplasty (TKA), 20 patients (14 women, 6 men) with bilateral knee osteoarthritis underwent a 1-stage bilateral TKA. Surgical approaches (subvastus, midvastus) were performed by a random selection. Measurements of quadriceps voluntary activation and maximal voluntary contraction were estimated by a twitch interpolation technique before, 3 and 6 months after TKA. Knee pain was quantified by the Lewis Score. There was no difference between the 2 approaches at 3 and 6 months after TKA with regard to maximal voluntary contraction (P = 0.84, F = 0.041) and voluntary activation (P = .863, F = 0.031). In the subvastus group was a significantly higher knee pain until 6 months after surgery (P = .02). The subvastus approach for TKA does not provide any advantages compared with the midvastus approach with respect to the quadriceps femoris muscle strength in the early postoperative period. Furthermore, the subvastus approach caused significantly more pain postoperatively.
"This strategy is thought to have faster recovery times, shorter stays in hospital, fewer problems with patella baja, and improved short-term functional outcomes [83, 84]. Critics have raised questions about malalignment of the leg, malpositioning of the implants, and the length of the learning curve for the procedure [85, 86]. Recent RCTs have failed to show a relevant advantage of this technique [87, 88]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Osteoathritis (OA) of the knee is common, and the chances of suffering from OA increase with age. Its treatment should be initially nonoperative-and requires both pharmacological and nonpharmacological treatment modalities. If conservative therapy fails, surgery should be considered. Surgical treatments for knee OA include arthroscopy, cartilage repair, osteotomy, and knee arthroplasty. Determining which of these procedures is most appropriate depends on several factors, including the location, stage of OA, comorbidities on the one side and patients suffering on the other side. Arthroscopic lavage and débridement is often carried out, but does not alter disease progression. If OA is limited to one compartment, unicompartmental knee arthroplasty or unloading osteotomy can be considered. They are recommended in young and active patients in regard to the risks and limited durability of total knee replacement. Total arthroplasty of the knee is a common and safe method in the elderly patients with advanced knee OA. This paper summarizes current surgical treatment strategies for knee OA, with a focus on the latest developments, indications and level of evidence.
"Having operated without disruption of the extensor mechanism subvastus approach theoretically preserves the quadriceps muscles function. It has been reported that subvastus approach in TKA could regain quadriceps muscle strength faster than the medial parapatellar approach   . On the other hand, it is reported that performing a knee arthroplasty through a subvastus approach is difficult in patients with limited preoperative knee flexion or in obese patients . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We hypothesized that patella eversion during total knee arthroplasty (TKA) reduces early return of active knee extension and flexion, quadriceps muscle strength, and postoperative pain. In 100 conventional TKA knees and 100 minimally invasive TKA (MIS TKA) knees, we compared knee range of motion (ROM), postoperative pain, and quadriceps muscle strength at 1 day, 4 days, 1 week, 2 weeks, 3 weeks, 4 weeks, 12 weeks, 1 year, and 5 years after surgery. The differences of surgical approach between MIS TKA and conventional TKA of this study are length of skin incision with subcutaneal flap and patella eversion. In MIS TKA, skin incision is shorter than conventional TKA. Furthermore, patella is not everted in MIS TKA procedure. There were no significant differences in preoperative factors. Postoperative improvement of ROM, postoperative muscle strength recovery, and postoperative improvement of visual analog scale were faster in patients with MIS TKA when compared to that in patients with conventional TKA. On the other hand, no significant difference was observed in complication, 5-year clinical results of subjective knee function score, and the postoperative component angle and lower leg alignment. These results indicate that patella eversion may affect muscle strength recovery and postoperative pain.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In total knee arthroplasty, tissue-sparing techniques are considered more important, as functional gain could become more advantageous when early mobilization is commenced. The parapatellar approach is most often used, whereas the subvastus approach is a suitable alternative. Presently, it is unknown, according to true objective measurements, which of the two is most advantageous.
In this prospective randomized double-blind, short-term trial measurements (KSS, WOMAC, PDI, VAS, ability to perform) were obtained at day 1, day 3, 1 week, 6 weeks, and 3 months.
The subvastus group (n=20) showed only significantly less extension lag direct postoperative (P=0.04) compared with the parapatellar group (n=20). Other scores were not significantly different. The Dynaport®knee test, an objective performance-based tool, could not demonstrate significant differences. A blunt anatomical dissection was carried out in both observational and histological to support findings. A dense innervation of the distal vastus medialis was found. This is at risk employing the subvastus approach. Both approaches harm the suprapatellar bursa. The vastus medialis sheath must be detached distally to open the knee joint. No true separate vastus medialis obliquus could be identified.
Comparable to literature, only mild advantage employing the subvastus approach was found, but only early postoperative and not objectively. As this approach is also not suitable in every case, we will continue to use the parapatellar approach.
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