Frequent emergence and functional resurrection of processed pseudogenes in the human and mouse genomes.
ABSTRACT Despite the wide distribution of processed pseudogenes in mammalian genomes, such as those of human and mouse, relatively little is known about their roles in genomic evolution. While gene duplications are recognized as one of the major driving forces in genome evolution, processed pseudogenes, which are retrotransposed copies of mRNAs, have been regarded as junk or selfish DNA for a long time. In order to elucidate the quantitative and qualitative contribution of processed pseudogenes to the mammalian genome evolution, we attempted to detect processed pseudogenes by extensively mapping the mRNAs to both the human and mouse genomes, and then we estimated the rate of their emergence. As a result, we revealed that the rate of pseudogene emergence was about 1-2% per gene per million years, which was as high as the rate (0.9%) of gene duplication in the human genome, although the rate of pseudogene emergence was found to drastically decrease in the hominid lineage. Furthermore, 1% of the processed pseudogenes seemed to be reinvigorated by post-retrotransposition transcription, many of them preserving the intact coding regions. Since the expression patterns of transcribed pseudogenes in various tissues were quite different between human and mouse, their emergence might have led to species-specific evolution. Our results indicate that the generation of processed pseudogenes was not wholly futile but instead has been an indispensable resource, driving dynamic evolution of the mammalian genomes.
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ABSTRACT: High-throughput gene expression profiling has become an important tool for investigating transcriptional activity in a variety of biological samples. To date, the vast majority of these experiments have focused on specific biological processes and perturbations. Here, we have generated and analyzed gene expression from a set of samples spanning a broad range of biological conditions. Specifically, we profiled gene expression from 91 human and mouse samples across a diverse array of tissues, organs, and cell lines. Because these samples predominantly come from the normal physiological state in the human and mouse, this dataset represents a preliminary, but substantial, description of the normal mammalian transcriptome. We have used this dataset to illustrate methods of mining these data, and to reveal insights into molecular and physiological gene function, mechanisms of transcriptional regulation, disease etiology, and comparative genomics. Finally, to allow the scientific community to use this resource, we have built a free and publicly accessible website (http://expression.gnf.org) that integrates data visualization and curation of current gene annotations.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 05/2002; 99(7):4465-70. · 9.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A widely cited model of the evolution of functionally novel proteins (here called the model of mutation during non-functionality (MDN model)) holds that, after gene duplication, one gene copy is redundant and free to accumulate substitutions at random. By chance, some of these substitutions may suit the protein encoded by such a non-functional gene to a new function, which it can subsequently assume. Several lines of evidence contradict this hypothesis: (i) comparison of expressed duplicate genes from the tetraploid frog Xenopus laevis suggests that such genes are subject to purifying selection and are thus not free to accumulate substitutions at random; (ii) in a number of multi-gene families, there is now evidence that functionally distinct proteins have arisen not as a result of chance fixation of neutral variants but rather as a result of positive Darwinian selection; and (iii) the phenomenon of gene sharing, in which a single gene encodes a protein having two distinct functions, shows that gene duplication is not a necessary prerequisite to the evolution of a new protein function. A model for the evolution of new protein is proposed under which a period of gene sharing ordinarily precedes the evolution of functionally distinct proteins. Gene duplication then allows each daughter gene to specialize for one of the functions of the ancestral gene.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 06/1994; 256(1346):119-24. · 5.68 Impact Factor
- Science 01/2000; · 31.03 Impact Factor