Mechanism of interactions of alpha-naphthoflavone with cytochrome P450 3A4 explored with an engineered enzyme bearing a fluorescent probe.
ABSTRACT Design of a partially cysteine-depleted C98S/C239S/C377S/C468A cytochrome P450 3A4 mutant designated CYP3A4(C58,C64) allowed site-directed incorporation of thiol-reactive fluorescent probes into alpha-helix A. The site of modification was identified as Cys-64 with the help of CYP3A4(C58) and CYP3A4(C64), each bearing only one accessible cysteine. Changes in the fluorescence of CYP3A4(C58,C64) labeled with 6-(bromoacetyl)-2-(dimethylamino)naphthalene (BADAN), 7-(diethylamino)-3-(4'-maleimidylphenyl)-4-methylcoumarin (CPM), or monobromobimane (mBBr) were used to study the interactions with bromocriptine (BCT), 1-pyrenebutanol (1-PB), testosterone (TST), and alpha-naphthoflavone (ANF). Of these substrates only ANF has a specific effect, causing a considerable decrease in fluorescence intensity of BADAN and CPM and increasing the fluorescence of mBBr. This ANF-binding event in the case of the BADAN-modified enzyme is characterized by an S50 of 18.2 +/- 0.7, compared with the value of 2.2 +/- 0.3 for the ANF-induced spin transition, thus revealing an additional low-affinity binding site. Studies of the effect of TST, 1-PB, and BCT on the interactions of ANF monitored by changes in fluorescence of CYP3A4(C58,C64)-BADAN or by the ANF-induced spin transition revealed no competition by these substrates. Investigation of the kinetics of fluorescence increase upon H2O2-dependent heme depletion suggests that labeled CYP3A4(C58,C64) is represented by two conformers, one of which has the fluorescence of the BADAN and CPM labels completely quenched, presumably by photoinduced electron transfer from the neighboring Trp-72 and/or Tyr-68 residues. The binding of ANF to the newly discovered binding site appears to affect the interactions of the label with the above residue(s), thus modulating the fraction of the fluorescent conformer.
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ABSTRACT: PC SPES is an eight-component herbal product marketed for the treatment of prostate cancer. The manufacturer of PC SPES claims that the herbal combination is a synergistic blend, but the purported synergy has never been tested. We examined the interaction in cell culture of these eight individual herbal components by the use of an isobologram. US patent no. 5,665,393 (1997) for PC SPES was acquired, and each of the eight herbal components described was acquired, properly identified, and extracted by 95% ethanol. The extracts were tested for cytotoxicity to PC 3 human prostate cancer cells in culture by the MTT (3-[4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. Seven combinations of herbal extracts were made, varying in the proportion of the most cytotoxic herbal extract, that of Panax notoginseng. The interactions of P. notoginseng with the other seven herbs were evaluated through the use of an isobologram. In all seven herbal combinations, P. notoginseng was found to be antagonistic with the other seven herbal components in the cytotoxicity assay ( P values: 0.09, 0.12, 0.12, 0.33, 0.45, 0.56, and 0.76). The interaction between the most cytotoxic herbal component of a widely used herbal product and the other seven components was antagonistic. Herbal combinations are no different from traditional combination pharmacotherapy. If herbal combinations are able to achieve antagonism, then theoretically they can achieve synergism if combined properly.Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology 06/2004; 53(5):384-90. · 2.83 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The fluorescence steady-state emission spectra of lipophilic fluorescence probe PRODAN in ethanol/buffer solvents of different concentrations (0.3, 0.9, 3 mol L(-1) ethanol) were extensively studied and analytically described. The complex experimental spectra, corrected for background effects, were fitted by two Gaussian curves. The energy separation of two maxima, (0.147+/-0.002) eV at 37 degrees C and (0.143+/-0.003) eV at 25 degrees C, was independent of ethanol concentration. The blue shifts observed for both maxima were linearly dependent on solvent polarity. The linear dependences of fluorescence's intensities on PRODAN concentration in all ethanol/buffer solvents indicate that no PRODAN self-quenching takes place even at the highest measured PRODAN concentrations.Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling 45(6):1636-40. · 4.68 Impact Factor