HIV and pneumococcal disease.
ABSTRACT To describe the impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy on the burden of pneumococcal disease and advances in our understanding of the impact of HIV on this disease.
Although highly active antiretroviral therapy has reduced the burden of pneumococcal disease among HIV-infected adults, these infections remain far more common than in HIV uninfected adults. HIV-infected adults who smoke or have comorbidities are at particular risk. In the absence of highly active antiretroviral therapy, pneumococcal meningitis has emerged in Africa as a major disease burden with a high mortality among HIV-infected children and adults. Conjugate pneumococcal vaccine protects HIV-infected infants from pneumococcal pneumonia. In the United States, where conjugate vaccine is given to children, herd immunity has reduced the burden of invasive pneumococcal disease among HIV-infected adults.
The pneumococcus remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality among HIV-infected children and adults, both in developed and in developing countries.
- The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 08/1999; 18(7):647-9. · 3.57 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To define the impact that the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) epidemic has had on the burden and outcome of bacterial meningitis in an area with a high prevalence of pediatric HIV-1 infection. Children less than 12 years of age with proven or suspected bacterial meningitis were enrolled in this study between March 1997 and February 1999, and their hospital records were retrospectively reviewed for clinical data. Sixty-two (42.2%) of the 147 children tested for HIV-1 infection were infected. Streptococcus pneumoniae (Pnc) exceeded Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) as the most important cause of meningitis in HIV-1-infected (74.2% vs. 12.9%, respectively) compared with uninfected children (29.4% vs. 42.3%, respectively, P less than 10(-5)). The estimated relative risk of Pnc meningitis was greater in HIV-1-infected than in uninfected children under 2 years of age (relative risk [RR] = 40.4; 95% confidence intervals [CI] = 17.7-92.2). Overall, HIV-1-infected children had a higher rate of mortality than uninfected children (30.6% vs. 11.8%, respectively, P = 0.01), and in particular, HIV-1-infected children with Pnc meningitis (60.8% vs. 36.0%, respectively, P = 0.04) had a poorer outcome. Streptococcus pneumoniae has exceeded Hib as the most important pathogen causing bacterial meningitis in HIV-1-infected compared with uninfected children. Effective vaccination against Hib and Pnc should be evaluated to reduce the overall burden of bacterial meningitis in HIV-1-infected children.International Journal of Infectious Diseases 02/2001; 5(3):119-25. · 2.36 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To describe the incidence and risk factors of bacterial pneumonia occurring in patients treated with antiretrovirals. In the ongoing APROCO (Anti-proteases) cohort, 1281 patients at the initiation of a protease inhibitor (PI)-containing antiretroviral regimen were enrolled from 1997-1999. All events requiring hospitalization during follow up are recorded. Of these, bacterial pneumonia was defined as the occurrence of a new pulmonary infiltrate with fever and either evidence of a bacteriological cause (definite cases) or favourable outcome with antimicrobial therapy (presumptive cases). Risk factors of bacterial pneumonia were studied using survival analyses. During a median follow up of 43 months, 29 patients had at least one episode of bacterial pneumonia, giving an incidence of 0.8/100 patient years. The 11 definite cases were attributable to Streptococcus pneumoniae (n=9), Legionella pneumophila (n=1) and Haemophilus influenzae (n=1). In multivariate analysis, bacterial pneumonia was significantly more frequent in older patients, injecting drug users, patients having a CD4 cell count>500 cells/microL at baseline and patients who initiated PI therapy with nonboosted saquinavir. It was significantly less frequent in nonsmokers. The occurrence of bacterial pneumonia was also associated with lower self-reported adherence to antiretroviral therapy and to higher plasma HIV-1 RNA levels during follow-up. Bacterial pneumonia occurs rarely in patients treated with a PI-containing regimen and may be associated with virological failure.HIV Medicine 05/2006; 7(4):261-7. · 3.16 Impact Factor