Prevalence of bacterial vaginosis: 2001-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data.
ABSTRACT To estimate the prevalence and correlates of bacterial vaginosis among women between the ages of 14 and 49 years in the United States.
Data from the 2001-2001 and 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were combined. Correlates of bacterial vaginosis evaluated included sociodemographic characteristics (age, race or ethnicity, education, poverty income ratio) and sexual history (age of first intercourse, number of sexual partners). Crude and adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated from logistic regression analyses.
Almost one third of women (29%) were positive for bacterial vaginosis. Bacterial vaginosis prevalence varied with age, race or ethnicity, education, and poverty. Black, non-Hispanic (odds ratio [OR] 3.13, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.58-3.80) and Mexican-American (OR 1.29, 95% CI 0.99-1.69) women had higher odds of bacterial vaginosis than white, non-Hispanic women after adjustment for other sociodemographic characteristics. Douching in the past 6 months was also an important predictor of bacterial vaginosis prevalence (OR 1.93, 95% CI 1.54-2.40).
Bacterial vaginosis is a common condition among U.S. women, and the prevalence is similar to that in many treatment-seeking populations. Further studies are needed to disentangle the interactions between race or ethnicity and other sociodemographic characteristics.
Article: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) candidate bacteria: associations with BV and behavioural practices in sexually-experienced and inexperienced women.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In recent years several new fastidious bacteria have been identified that display a high specificity for BV; however no previous studies have comprehensively assessed the behavioural risk associations of these bacterial vaginosis-candidate organisms (BV-COs). We examined the associations between 8 key previously described BV-COs and BV status established by Nugent's score (NS). We also examined the sexual practices associated with each BV-CO. We incorporated 2 study populations: 193 from a sexually-inexperienced university population and 146 from a highly sexually-active clinic population. Detailed behavioural data was collected by questionnaire and vaginal smears were scored by the Nugent method. Stored samples were tested by quantitative PCR assays for the 8 BV-COs: Atopobium vaginae, Gardnerella vaginalis, Leptotrichia spp., Megasphaera type I, Sneathia spp., and the Clostridia-like bacteria BVAB1, BVAB2 and BVAB3. Associations between BV-COs and BV and behaviours were examined by univariate and multivariable analyses. On univariate analysis, all BV-COs were more common in BV compared to normal flora. However, only Megasphaera type I, BVAB2, A. vaginae and G. vaginalis were significantly independently associated with BV by multivariable analysis. Six of the eight BV-COs (Megasphaera type I, BVAB2, BVAB3, Sneathia, Leptotrichia and G. vaginalis) were rare or absent in sexually-unexposed women, and demonstrated increasing odds of detection with increasing levels of sexual activity and/or numbers of lifetime sexual partners. Only G. vaginalis and A. vaginae were commonly detected in sexually-unexposed women. Megasphaera type I was independently associated with women-who-have-sex-with women (WSW) and lifetime sexual partner numbers, while unprotected penile-vaginal-sex was associated with BVAB2 detection by multivariate analysis. Four of eight key BV-COs were significantly associated with BV after adjusting for the presence of other BV-COs. The majority of BV-COs were absent or rare in sexually-unexposed women, and associated with increasing sexual exposure, suggesting potential sexual transmission of BV-COs.PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(2):e30633. · 4.09 Impact Factor
Article: Hydrolysis of Secreted Sialoglycoprotein Immunoglobulin A (IgA) in ex Vivo and Biochemical Models of Bacterial Vaginosis[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common polymicrobial imbalance of the vaginal flora associated with a wide variety of obstetric and gynecologic complications including serious infections and preterm birth. As evidenced by high recurrence rates following treatment, interventions for BV are still lacking. Several hydrolytic activities, including glycosidases and proteases, have been previously correlated with BV and have been hypothesized to degrade host sialoglycoproteins that participate in mucosal immune functions. Sialidase activity is most predictive of BV status and correlates strongly with adverse health outcomes. Here we combine clinical specimens with biochemical approaches to investigate secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) as a substrate of BV-associated glycosidases and proteases. We show that BV clinical specimens hydrolyze sialic acid from SIgA, but not in the presence of the sialidase inhibitor dehydro-deoxy-sialic acid. The collective action of BV-associated glycosidases exposes underlying mannose residues of SIgA, most apparent on the heavily N-glycosylated secretory component of the antibody. Terminal sialic acid residues on SIgA protect underlying carbohydrate residues from exposure and hydrolysis by exoglycosidases (galactosidase and hexosaminidase). It is known that both IgG and SIgA are present in the human reproductive tract. We show that the IgG heavy chain is more susceptible to proteolysis than its IgA counterpart. Gentle partial deglycosylation of the SIgA secretory component enhanced susceptibility to proteolysis. Together, these data support a model of BV in which SIgA is subject to stepwise exodeglycosylation and enhanced proteolysis, likely compromising the ability of the reproductive mucosa to neutralize and eliminate pathogens.Journal of Biological Chemistry 01/2012; 287(3):2079-2089. · 4.77 Impact Factor
Dataset: clm 2112 2009