Association of Lymphadenectomy and Survival in Stage I Ovarian Cancer Patients

Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Stanford Cancer Center, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.
Obstetrics and Gynecology (Impact Factor: 5.18). 02/2007; 109(1):12-9. DOI: 10.1097/01.AOG.0000249610.95885.ef
Source: PubMed


To estimate the survival impact of lymphadenectomy in women diagnosed with clinical stage I ovarian cancer.
Demographic and clinicopathologic information were obtained from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program between 1988 and 2001. Data were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier methods and Cox proportional hazards regression.
A total of 6,686 women had clinical stage I ovarian cancer (median age 54 years, range 1-99). Of this total, 75.9% of patients were Caucasian, 8.3% were Hispanic, 5.8% were African American, and 7.3% were Asian. Epithelial tumors were present in 85.8% of the women, and 2,862 (42.8%) patients underwent lymphadenectomy. Patients aged 50 years or more were less likely to undergo lymphadenectomy compared with their younger cohorts (39.8% compared with 60.2%, P<.001). Only 32.7% of African-American women had lymphadenectomy compared with 42.7% of Caucasian women, 47.2% of Hispanics, and 48.8% of Asians (P<.001). Lymphadenectomy was associated with improved 5-year disease-specific survival of all patients from 87.0% to 92.6% (P<.001). More specifically, lymphadenectomy improved the survival in those with non-clear cell epithelial ovarian cancer (85.9% to 93.3%, P<.001) but not in those with clear cell carcinoma, germ cell tumors, sex cord stromal tumors, and sarcomas. Moreover, the extent of lymphadenectomy (0 nodes, less than 10 nodes, and 10 or more nodes) increased the survival rates from 87.0% to 91.9% to 93.8%, respectively (P<.001). On multivariable analysis, the extent of lymphadenectomy was a significant prognostic factor for improved survival, independently of other factors such as age, stage, histology, and grade of disease.
Our data suggest that women with stage I non-clear cell ovarian cancers who underwent lymphadenectomy had a significant improvement in survival.

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    • "Ovarian cancer remains one of the major causes of death from the female genital tract malignancy worldwide, and in the United States, 21,990 new cases and 15,460 deaths were estimated in 2011 [1]. Approximately 25% of ovarian cancer patients are diagnosed with early-stage disease at the time of initial treatment [2]. Surgical staging is a critical aspect of early ovarian cancer as well as advanced ovarian cancer because the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) staging based on surgical and pathologic findings is one of the most important prognostic factors [3]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of para-aortic lymphadenectomy up to the renal vessels on the accurate staging in ovarian cancer patients presumed preoperatively to be confined to the ovary. We retrospectively analyzed data on 124 patients with primary epithelial ovarian cancer who were preoperatively thought to have tumor confined to the ovary and underwent primary staging surgery. The distribution of lymph node metastasis and various risk factors for nodal involvement were investigated. SURGICAL STAGING YIELDED: 87 (70.2%) patients had International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage I disease and 37 (29.8%) patients had stage II-III disease: 4 IIA, 6 IIB, 9 IIC, 1 IIIA, and 17 IIIC. Eighty-six patients had pelvic lymphadenectomy only and 69 had pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy. Lymph node metastases were found in 17 (24.6%) of 69 patients; 5 (7.2%) patients had lymph node metastasis in the pelvic lymph nodes only, 8 (11.6%) in the para-aortic lymph nodes only, and 4 (5.8%) in both pelvic and para-aortic lymph nodes. Six (8.7%) patients had lymph node metastasis in the para-aortic lymph node above the level of the inferior mesenteric artery. On multivariate analysis, grade 3 tumor (p=0.01) and positive cytology (p=0.03) were independent predictors for lymph node metastasis. A substantial number of patients with apparently early ovarian cancer had upstaged disease. Of patients who underwent lymphadenectomy, some patients had lymph node metastasis above the level of the inferior mesenteric artery. Para-aortic lymphadenectomy up to the renal vessels may detect occult metastasis and be of help in tailoring appropriate adjuvant treatment as well as giving useful information about the prognosis.
    Journal of Gynecologic Oncology 01/2013; 24(1):29-36. DOI:10.3802/jgo.2013.24.1.29 · 2.49 Impact Factor
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    • "However, we reported that pN status showed only a marginal significance upon PFS and no significance upon OS based on the analysis of 199 CCC [16]. Other reports failed to show the usefulness of lymphadenectomy as prognostic factor [17,18]. Further examination will be required to confirm the role of lymphadenectomy for CCC. "
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    ABSTRACT: Several clinical trials to establish standard treatment modality for ovarian cancers included a high abundance of patients with serous histologic tumors, which were quite sensitive to platinum-based chemotherapy. On the other hand, ovarian tumor with rare histologic subtypes such as clear cell or mucinous tumors have been recognized to show chemo-resistant phenotype, leading to poorer prognosis. Especially, clear cell carcinoma of the ovary (CCC) is a distinctive tumor, deriving from endometriosis or clear cell adenofibroma, and response rate to platinum-based therapy is extremely low. It was implied that complete surgical staging enabled us to distinguish a high risk group of recurrence in CCC patients whose disease was confined to the ovary (pT1M0); however, complete surgical staging procedures could not lead to improved survival. Moreover, the status of peritoneal cytology was recognized as an independent prognostic factor in early-staged CCC patients, even after complete surgical staging. In advanced cases with CCC, the patients with no residual tumor had significantly better survival than those with the tumor less than 1 cm or those with tumor diameter more than 1 cm. Therefore, the importance of achieving no macroscopic residual disease at primary surgery is so important compared with other histologic subtypes. On the other hand, many studies have shown that conventional platinum-based chemotherapy regimens yielded a poorer prognosis in patients with CCC than in patients with serous subtypes. The response rate by paclitaxel plus carboplatin (TC) was slightly higher, ranging from 22% to 56%, which was not satisfactory enough. Another regimen for CCC tumors is now being explored: irinotecan plus cisplatin, and molecular targeting agents. In this review article, we discuss the surgical issues for early-staged and advanced CCC including possibility of fertility-sparing surgery, and the chemotherapy for CCC disease.
    Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research 06/2012; 31(1):53. DOI:10.1186/1756-9966-31-53 · 4.43 Impact Factor
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    • "These patients need to be restaged during a second procedure. During these restaging procedures the chances of upstaging a patient to stages III– IV is approximately 30% [29]. As shown in this present overview, there is 14.2% chance of finding lymph node metastases, and therefore a staging procedure, including an extensive pelvic and para-aortic sampling or complete lymphadenectomy has to be performed at all times. "
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this review is to determine the incidence of lymph node metastases in clinical stages I and II ovarian cancer. Relevant articles were identified from MEDLINE and EMBASE, supplemented with citations from reference lists from the primary studies. Eligibility was evaluated by two authors. Included studies were prospective or retrospective cohort studies, which analyzed patients with clinical early stage EOC who underwent a complete pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy as a part of a staging laparotomy. Fourteen studies were included in the analysis. The mean incidence of lymph node metastases in clinical stages I-II EOC was 14.2% (range 6.1-29.6%), of which 7.1% only in the para-aortic region, 2.9% only in the pelvic region, and 4.3% both in the para-aortic and pelvic region. Grade 1 tumors had a mean incidence of lymph node metastases of 4.0%, grade 2 tumors 16.5.8% and grade 3 tumors 20.0%. According to histological subtype, the highest incidence of lymph node metastases was found in the serous subtype (23.3%), the lowest in the mucinous subtype (2.6%). In unilateral tumors, pelvic lymph node metastases were found in 9.7% on both sides, 8.3% only at the ipsilateral side, and in 3.5% only at the contralateral side. The incidence of lymph node metastases in clinical early stage EOC is considerable. Based on the scarce literature data, omitting a systematic lymphadenectomy can only be considered in grade I mucinous tumors.
    Gynecologic Oncology 12/2011; 123(3):610-4. DOI:10.1016/j.ygyno.2011.09.013 · 3.77 Impact Factor
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