beta2-Adrenergic receptor gene variants and risk for autism in the AGRE cohort.
ABSTRACT The beta2-adrenergic receptor is part of the catecholamine system, and variants at two polymorphic sites in the gene coding for the receptor (ADRB2) confer increased activity. Overstimulation of this receptor may alter brain development, and has been linked to autism in non-identical twins. The objective of this study was to determine whether alleles in ADRB2 are associated with diagnosis of autism in the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange (AGRE) population. Three hundred and thirty-one independent autism case-parent trios were included in the analysis. Subjects were genotyped at activity-related polymorphisms rs1042713 (codon 16) and rs1042714 (codon 27). Association between autism and genotypes at each polymorphic site was tested using genotype-based transmission disequilibrium tests, and effect modification by family and pregnancy characteristics was evaluated. Sensitivity to designation of the proband in each family was assessed by performing 1000 repeats of the analysis selecting affected children randomly. A statistically significant OR of 1.66 for the Glu27 homozygous genotype was observed. Increased associations with this genotype were observed among a subset of Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule confirmed cases and a subset reporting experience of pregnancy-related stressors. In conclusion, the Glu27 allele of the ADRB2 gene may confer increased risk of autism and shows increased strength with exposure to pregnancy related stress.
- SourceAvailable from: Janice SowinskiThe American Journal of Human Genetics 09/2001; 69(2):463-6. · 11.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We hypothesized that the muscle vasodilatation during mental stress and exercise would vary among humans who are polymorphic at alleles 16 and 27 of the beta(2)-adrenoceptors. From 216 preselected volunteers, we studied 64 healthy, middle-aged normotensive women selected to represent three genotypes: homozygous for the alleles Arg(16) and Gln(27) (Arg(16)/Gln(27), n = 34), Gly(16) and Gln(27) (Gly(16)/Gln(27), n = 20), and Gly(16) and Glu(27) (Gly(16)/Glu(27), n = 10). Forearm blood flow (plethysmography) and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (microneurography) were recorded during 3-min Stroop color-word test and 3-min handgrip isometric exercise (30% maximal voluntary contraction). Baseline muscle sympathetic nerve activity, forearm vascular conductance, mean blood pressure, and heart rate were not different among groups. During mental stress, the peak forearm vascular conductance responses were greater in Gly(16)/Glu(27) group than in Gly(16)/Gln(27) and Arg(16)/Gln(27) groups (1.79 +/- 0.66 vs. 0.70 +/- 0.11 and 0.58 +/- 0.12 units, P = 0.03). Similar results were found during exercise (0.80 +/- 0.25 vs. 0.28 +/- 0.08 and 0.31 +/- 0.08 units, P = 0.02). Further analysis in a subset of subjects showed that brachial intra-arterial propranolol infusion abolished the difference in vasodilatory response between Gly(16)/Glu(27) (n = 6) and Arg(16)/Gln(27) (n = 7) groups during mental stress (0.33 +/- 0.20 vs. 0.46 +/- 0.21 units, P = 0.50) and exercise (0.08 +/- 0.06 vs. 0.03 +/- 0.03 units, P = 0.21). Plasma epinephrine concentration in Arg(16)/Gln(27) and Gly(16)/Glu(27) groups was similar. In conclusion, women who are homozygous for Gly(16)/Glu(27) of the beta(2)-adrenoceptors have augmented muscle vasodilatory responsiveness to mental stress and exercise.Journal of Applied Physiology 04/2005; 98(3):787-94. · 3.48 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We have isolated and sequenced a cDNA encoding the human beta 2-adrenergic receptor. The deduced amino acid sequence (413 residues) is that of a protein containing seven clusters of hydrophobic amino acids suggestive of membrane-spanning domains. While the protein is 87% identical overall with the previously cloned hamster beta 2-adrenergic receptor, the most highly conserved regions are the putative transmembrane helices (95% identical) and cytoplasmic loops (93% identical), suggesting that these regions of the molecule harbor important functional domains. Several of the transmembrane helices also share lesser degrees of identity with comparable regions of select members of the opsin family of visual pigments. We have localized the gene for the beta 2-adrenergic receptor to q31-q32 on chromosome 5. This is the same position recently determined for the gene encoding the receptor for platelet-derived growth factor and is adjacent to that for the FMS protooncogene, which encodes the receptor for the macrophage colony-stimulating factor.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 01/1987; 84:46-50. · 9.74 Impact Factor