Vascular Sources of Oxidative Stress: Implications for Uremia-Related Cardiovascular Disease

Clinica Medica, DSCMT, University of Trieste, Italy.
Journal of Renal Nutrition (Impact Factor: 1.87). 02/2007; 17(1):53-6. DOI: 10.1053/j.jrn.2006.10.008
Source: PubMed


Chronic oxidative stress that characterizes uremia has potentially devastating effects on the vasculature and has been advocated in the pathogenesis of accelerated atherosclerosis in this disease. Recent advances have been made in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that regulate expression and activity of key enzymes of vascular oxidative stress (eg, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate [NAD{P}H] oxidase) and that dissect their interactions with signalling pathways of inflammation. The finding that NAD(P)H oxidase is upregulated in experimental uremia has important consequences from a physiologic and a therapeutic standpoint. In addition, identification of novel proteins involved in systemic oxidative stress has shed some new light on the pathogenesis of vascular disease. p66(shc) is a cytoplasmic protein that is expressed in a wide range of cell types. Initially believed to be involved in signalling pathways that regulate cell growth and oxidative stress, it has now been shown to play a pivotal role in promoting endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. Although a specific role in uremia-related vascular disease has not yet been shown, available data in humans suggest involvement of p66(shc) in clinical conditions associated with increased oxidative stress.

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