Pathologic and molecular heterogeneity in imatinib-stable or imatinib-responsive gastrointestinal stromal tumors
ABSTRACT Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is the most common sarcoma of the intestinal tract. Nearly all tumors express KIT protein, and most have an activating mutation in either KIT or PDGFRA. Therapy with selective tyrosine kinase inhibitors achieves a partial response or stable disease in approximately 80% of patients with advanced GIST. However, after an initial clinical response, some patients develop imatinib resistance. Our goal was to investigate the spectrum of pathologic response and molecular alterations in a group of GIST patients, clinically defined as having imatinib-stable/imatinib-responsive lesions, who underwent surgical resection.
Forty-three tumor nodules from 28 patients were available for pathologic and molecular analysis, which included genotyping for primary and secondary KIT/PDGFRA-mutations, cell cycle alterations, and biochemical activation status of KIT and downstream targets. The transcriptional changes of a subset of these tumors were compared with a group of imatinib-naive GISTs on a U133A Affymetrix expression platform.
The histologic response did not correlate with imatinib therapy duration or with proliferative activity. Second-site KIT mutation was identified in only one tumor nodule. Activation of KIT and downstream targets was consistent in all tumors analyzed. Ultrastructurally, a subset of tumors showed a smooth muscle phenotype, which correlated with overexpression of genes involved in muscle differentiation and function.
The histologic response to imatinib is heterogeneous and does not correlate well with clinical response. Second-site KIT mutations are rare in imatinib-responsive GISTs compared with imatinib-resistant tumors. The gene signature of imatinib-response in GISTs showed alterations of cell cycle control as well as up-regulation of genes involved in muscle differentiation and function.
SourceAvailable from: Mehran Ghaderi[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Background:Gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST) is mainly initialised by receptor tyrosine kinase gene mutations. Although the tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib mesylate considerably improved the outcome of patients, imatinib resistance still remains a major therapeutic challenge in GIST therapy. Herein we evaluated the clinical impact of microRNAs in imatinib-treated GISTs.Methods:The expression levels of microRNAs were quantified using microarray and RT-qPCR in GIST specimens from patients treated with neoadjuvant imatinib. The functional roles of miR-125a-5p and PTPN18 were evaluated in GIST cells. PTPN18 expression was quantified by western blotting in GIST samples.Results:We showed that overexpression levels of miR-125a-5p and miR-107 were associated with imatinib resistance in GIST specimens. Functionally, miR-125a-5p expression modulated imatinib sensitivity in GIST882 cells with a homozygous KIT mutation but not in GIST48 cells with double KIT mutations. Overexpression of miR-125a-5p suppressed PTPN18 expression, and silencing of PTPN18 expression increased cell viability in GIST882 cells upon imatinib treatment. PTPN18 protein levels were significantly lower in the imatinib-resistant GISTs and inversely correlated with miR-125a-5p. Furthermore, several microRNAs were significantly associated with metastasis, KIT mutational status and survival.Conclusions:Our findings highlight a novel functional role of miR-125a-5p on imatinib response through PTPN18 regulation in GIST.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 30 October 2014; doi:10.1038/bjc.2014.548 www.bjcancer.com.British Journal of Cancer 10/2014; DOI:10.1038/bjc.2014.548 · 4.82 Impact Factor
Dataset: Gastrointestinal stromal tumor
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ABSTRACT: Acquired resistance to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) is most commonly caused by secondary KIT or PDGFRA mutations. In this study we characterize a newly established GIST xenograft model, UZLX-GIST9, and evaluate the in vivo response of the model to standard TKIs (imatinib, sunitinib, and regorafenib).08/2014; 4:10. DOI:10.1186/2045-3329-4-10