Effect of Calorie Restriction with or without Exercise on Body Composition and Fat Distribution

Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, United States
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology &amp Metabolism (Impact Factor: 6.21). 04/2007; 92(3):865-72. DOI: 10.1210/jc.2006-2184
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT There is debate over the independent and combined effects of dieting and increased physical activity on improving metabolic risk factors (body composition and fat distribution).
The objective of the study was to conduct a randomized, controlled trial (CALERIE) to test the effect of a 25% energy deficit by diet alone or diet plus exercise for 6 months on body composition and fat distribution.
This was a randomized, controlled trial.
The study was conducted at an institutional research center.
Thirty-five of 36 overweight but otherwise healthy participants (16 males, 19 females) completed the study.
Participants were randomized to either control (healthy weight maintenance diet, n = 11), caloric restriction (CR; 25% reduction in energy intake, n = 12), or caloric restriction plus exercise (CR+EX; 12.5% reduction in energy intake + 12.5% increase in exercise energy expenditure, n = 12) for 6 months.
Changes in body composition by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and changes in abdominal fat distribution by multislice computed tomography were measured. Results: The calculated energy deficit across the intervention was not different between CR and CR+EX. Participants lost approximately 10% of body weight (CR: - 8.3 +/- 0.8, CR+EX: - 8.1 +/- 0.8 kg, P = 1.00), approximately 24% of fat mass (CR: - 5.8 +/- 0.6, CR+EX: - 6.4 +/- 0.6 kg, P = 0.99), and 27% of abdominal visceral fat (CR: 0.9 +/- 0.2, CR+EX: 0.8 +/- 0.2 kg, P = 1.00). Both whole-body and abdominal fat distribution were not altered by the intervention.
Exercise plays an equivalent role to CR in terms of energy balance; however, it can also improve aerobic fitness, which has other important cardiovascular and metabolic implications.

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Available from: Leonie Heilbronn, Sep 28, 2015
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    • "Altogether our results suggest that the beneficial effects of both acute and chronic exercise on fat metabolism primarily occur during sleep. As has been noted in longitudinal and cross-sectional studies, we further observed that reduced-obese subjects who exercised regularly had higher levels of aerobic fitness [42], [43], insulin sensitivity [43], [44], HDL cholesterol [42], and lower fasting and 24-hr TG levels as compared to sedentary reduced-obese individuals, despite similar level of body fat. Aerobic fitness was also favorably associated with insulin sensitivity and lipemia, which provides additional evidence supporting the benefits of exercise in mitigating the adverse effects of unhealthy weight. "
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    ABSTRACT: It has been hypothesized that obese and reduced-obese individuals have decreased oxidative capacity, which contributes to weight gain and regain. Recent data have challenged this concept. To determine (1) whether total and dietary fat oxidation are decreased in obese and reduced-obese adults compared to lean but increase in response to an acute exercise bout and (2) whether regular physical activity attenuates these metabolic alterations. We measured 24-hr total (whole-room calorimetry) and dietary fat (14C-oleate) oxidation in Sedentary Lean (BMI = 21.5±1.6; n = 10), Sedentary Obese (BMI = 33.6±2.5; n = 9), Sedentary Reduced-Obese (RED-SED; BMI = 26.9±3.7; n = 7) and in Physically Active Reduced-Obese (RED-EX; BMI = 27.3±2.8; n = 12) men and women with or without an acute exercise bout where energy expended during exercise was not replaced. Although Red-SED and Red-EX had a similar level of fatness, aerobic capacity and metabolic profiles were better in Red-EX only compared to Obese subjects. No significant between-group differences were seen in 24-hr respiratory quotient (RQ, Lean: 0.831±0.044, Obese: 0.852±0.023, Red-SED: 0.864±0.037, Red-EX: 0.842±0.039), total and dietary fat oxidation. A single bout of exercise increased total (+27.8%, p<0.0001) and dietary (+6.6%, p = 0.048) fat oxidation across groups. Although exercise did not impact RQ during the day, it decreased RQ during sleep (p = 0.01) in all groups. Red-EX oxidized more fat overnight than Red-SED subjects under both resting (p = 0.036) and negative energy balance (p = 0.003) conditions, even after adjustment for fat-free mass. Obese and reduced-obese individuals oxidize as much fat as lean both under eucaloric and negative energy balance conditions, which does not support the hypothesis of reduced oxidative capacity in these groups. Reduced-obese individuals who exercise regularly have markers of metabolic health similar to those seen in lean adults. Both the acute and chronic effects of exercise were primarily observed at night suggesting an important role of sleep in the regulation of lipid metabolism.
    PLoS ONE 04/2014; 9(4):e94181. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0094181 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "This meta-analysis confirmed the need for gender-specific approaches and outcomes of obesity treatment in general, as previously stated by Lovejoy et al.[46] and more specific in the treatment of abdominal obesity. Furthermore, the results of this meta-analysis showed that males yield a higher profit of exercise on VAT than women corroborating the findings of Redman et al.[47]. The latter found more effect of caloric restriction and of the combination of caloric restriction and aerobic exercise in men then in women. "
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    ABSTRACT: Excessive visceral adipose tissue appears to trigger a cascade of metabolic disturbances that seem to coexist with ectopic fat storage in muscle, liver, heart and the ß-cell. Therefore, the reduction of visceral adipose tissue potentially plays a pivotal role in the treatment of the metabolic syndrome. The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to describe the overall effect of exercise on visceral adipose tissue and to provide an overview of the effect of different exercise regimes, without caloric restriction, on visceral adipose tissue in obese persons. A systematic literature search was performed according to the PRISMA statement for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses. The initial search resulted in 87 articles after removing duplicates. After screening on title, abstract and full-text 15 articles (totalling 852 subjects) fulfilled the a priori inclusion criteria. The quality of each eligible study was assessed in duplicate with “The Critical Review Form for Quantitative Studies”. Using random-effects weights, the standardized mean difference (Hedge's g) of the change in visceral adipose tissue was −0.497 with a 95% confidence interval of −0.655 to −0.340. The Z-value was −6.183 and the p-value (two tailed) was <0.001. A subgroup analysis was performed based on gender, type of training and intensity. Aerobic training of moderate or high intensity has the highest potential to reduce visceral adipose tissue in overweight males and females. These results suggest that an aerobic exercise program, without hypocaloric diet, can show beneficial effects to reduce visceral adipose tissue with more than 30 cm2 (on CT analysis) in women and more than 40 cm2 in men, even after 12 weeks.
    PLoS ONE 02/2013; 8(2). DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0056415 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "Thus, the main issue in obesity treatment is to lose the excessive fat mass by engaging an increased physical practice and appropriate food consumption. Several studies using caloric restrictive diets showed that this type of dietary intervention can reduce obesity in obese humans [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] and rats [6] [7] [8] [9] but no studies to date have tried to modify only the macronutrient distribution. Thus, information on the effects of macronutrients composition in diet without caloric restriction on body weight and composition is lacking. "
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    ABSTRACT: The association of a well-balanced diet with exercise is a key strategy to treat obesity. However, weight loss is linked to an accelerated bone loss. Furthermore, exercise is known to induce beneficial effects on bone. We investigated the impact of a well-balanced isoenergetic reducing diet (WBR) and exercise on bone tissue in obese rats. Sixty male rats had previously been fed with a high fat/high sucrose diet (HF/HS) for 4months to induce obesity. Then, 4 regimens were initiated for 2months: HF/HS diet plus exercise (treadmill: 50min/day, 5days/week), WBR diet plus exercise, HF/HS diet plus inactivity and WBR diet plus inactivity. Body composition and total BMD were assessed using DXA and visceral fat mass was weighed. Tibia densitometry was assessed by Piximus. Bone histomorphometry was performed on the proximal metaphysis of tibia and on L2 vertebrae (L2). Trabecular micro-architectural parameters were measured on tibia and L2 by 3D microtomography. Plasma concentration of osteocalcin and CTX were measured. Both WBR diet and exercise had decreased global weight, global fat and visceral fat mass (p<0.05). The WBR diet alone failed to alter total and tibia bone mass and BMD. However, Tb.Th, bone volume density and degree of anisotropy of tibia were decreased by the WBR diet (p<0.05). Moreover, the WBR diet had involved a significant lower MS/BS and BFR/BS in L2 (p<0.05). Exercise had significantly improved BMD of the tibia possibly by inhibiting the bone resorption, as evidenced by no change in plasma osteocalcin levels, a decrease of CTX levels (p<0.005) and trabecular osteoclast number (p<0.05). In the present study a diet inducing weight and fat mass losses did not affected bone mass and BMD of obese rats despite alterations of their bone micro-architecture. The moderate intensity exercise performed had improved the tibia BMD of obese rats without any trabecular and cortical adaptation.
    Bone 01/2013; 53(2). DOI:10.1016/j.bone.2013.01.006 · 3.97 Impact Factor
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